Vocabulary: festivals and celebrations Listening: three reports about festivals 1 4
4 Culture and civilisations
Vocabulary: festivals and celebrations
1 Match the words with their definitions.
Listening: three reports about festivals
CD1/11 Listen to three reports about festivals.
Match the listening texts 1–3 to the pictures A–C.
1 a piece of wax with a wick through the middle that
you can burn to give light –
2 something that you give to somebody –
3 a type of light that can be carried, with a frame, glass
sides and a light or candle inside –
4 clothes that actors or children wear in order to look
like someone or something else –
5 a colourful piece of paper on which you write wishes
for somebody –
2 Przeczytaj tekst. Z podanych odpowiedzi
wybierz właściwą tak, aby otrzymać logiczny
i gramatycznie poprawny tekst. Zakreśl literę:
A, B lub C.
There are many (1)
throughout the year, but
those coming at the beginning or the end of the
year are probably the most (2)
cultures and (3)
. Hannukah is (4) by
Jews in December and lasts for 8 nights. The Chinese
welcome the New Year (5) time between
January 21st and February 20th. On December 26th
African Americans have a holiday that (6)
African heritage and is called Kwanzaa. Christians
celebrate Epiphany, which comes at the end of the
Twelve Days of Christmas.
1 A free days
2 A important
3 A religions
4 A prayed
5 A some
6 A commemorates
CD1/11 Usłyszysz dwukrotnie trzy teksty.
Z podanych odpowiedzi wybierz właściwą, zgodną
z treścią nagrania. Zakreśl literę: A, B lub C.
1 Which of the following is true?
A The festival is celebrated in the whole of
Central and South America.
B The festival is not a joyful event.
C Pan de los muertos is not the most
recognisable image of the festival.
2 The festival …
3 Fill in the missing letters.
1 In Chinese t _ _ d _ _ _ _ n gold is the colour that
brings w _ _ _ _ h.
2 A menorah is so important in J _ _ _ _ h culture that
nowadays it even s _ _ b _ _ _ _ _ s the state of Israel.
3 Kwanzaa is c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ d by African American
families and reminds people of seven basic v _ _ _ _ s.
4 It also c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ s their African h _ _ _ _ _ _ e.
A is the most important celebration in New
B has its roots in France.
C marks the beginning of Lent.
3 Which of the following is not true?
A The festival has been banned for safety reasons.
B The festival is popular with overseas visitors.
C The festival is more than two hundred years old.
4 A, B, C
Culture and civilisations
Grammar: modals for speculating: the past
Grammar: modals for speculating:
1 Complete the sentences with the verbs might, must
4 Look at each picture and the words below. Write
a full sentence using a modal verb of speculation
that refers to the past.
1 He said that Cathy is over there, but she
be. She’s still at work.
2 Bring your umbrella. It
rain. You never
3 Your daughter got the best exam results in her year.
be very proud.
4 You haven’t eaten since yesterday. You
1 The cat / break / the bottle.
be true about Julie and Ron getting
married. They always hated each other at school.
6 I heard someone at the door.
your friends arriving?
2 Complete these sentences with must or have to in
the correct form.
leave your bags at the
museum entrance. You are not allowed to take them
into the exhibition.
2 Dinosaurs / survive / the ice age.
2 The sign says we
road here. There’s a special crossing down the road.
come if you don’t want to.
4 To see this film, children under the age of 12
be with an adult. We will not
let anyone under this age enter.
5 When we were kids, we
people go first. Nowadays, no one seems to care.
6 When I was 14 years old, I
on at school. I could leave and start working.
7 During the exam, you
3 They / not / make / this in the Stone Age. It’s made of
8 In my country, the 25th December is a public holiday
go to school.
Grammar: order of adjectives
3 Read these sentences from different adverts.
In each description of the object, put the adjective
in brackets in the correct position.
5 Uzupełnij każde z podanych zdań tak, aby
zachować znaczenie zdania wyjściowego.
Wymagana jest pełna poprawność ortograficzna
i gramatyczna wpisywanych części zdań.
1 It is possible that these archaic coins were made
These archaic coins
2 Would you mind lighting a candle?
For sale: beautiful English cabinet. (old)
2 Free to good home: small white kitten. (loving)
I have a blue and silver bicycle in good condition.
Ornate porcelain vase for sale. (Russian)
3 You made a mistake by not reporting the illegal
trade in art.
4 I am sure they found this jewel-encrusted dagger
during the excavation.
5 It was never obligatory for small children to
Small children did not
1 What is the speaker describing in sentences 1–6?
Write the words from the box after the sentences.
4 Przeczytaj tekst, z którego usunięto pięć zdań.
2 When they promise to do something, they do it.
Wpisz w luki 1–5 litery, którymi oznaczono
brakujące zdania (A–F) tak, aby otrzymać
logiczny i spójny tekst.
Uwaga: jedno zdanie zostało podane
dodatkowo i nie pasuje do żadnej luki.
3 England’s most famous writer must be Shakespeare.
A Some of them also have clay horses and wooden
4 Buddhism is the main one in this country.
B However, an ancient Chinese text describes the
1 All the people in the street are celebrating and
watching the parade.
5 In this country you bow when you meet someone
for the first time.
6 You can always tell it’s Italy from the shape of the
2 Circle the best answer.
2 Many vases / axes in Greek times were made of
clay / plastic.
3 You can find incredible / horrible pieces by digging /
burying in the ground at an archaeological site.
4 Some vases have many detailed / false pictures on
the sides / frames.
5 The owner / buyer of the sword / vase must have
been a soldier and probably fought in many battles /
6 The tomb / graves they found contained a lot of
jewellery / pottery so it must have belonged to
a wealthy / poor Roman.
3 Uzupełnij zdania słowami utworzonymi od
wyrazów podanych w nawiasach tak, aby otrzymać
logiczne i gramatycznie poprawne zdania.
1 ‘God Save the Queen’ is the title of the British
2 In the summer there are lots of outdoor
(CULTURE) events in our
3 Who is the
(ART) who did
4 The three
caught as they were running from the bank.
C He linked the states with canals and roads to unify
them and to improve trade routes.
D It was one of the most important ancient
E It was a life-size soldier made from terracotta clay.
F By 221 BC, he had conquered six more.
1 Archaeology / Anthropology is the systematic
study of past human /animal life and culture by the
examination of surviving graves / buildings and
Reading: the first emperor’s terracotta
(SMUGGLE) is still a massive
problem around the world.
When workers were digging a well outside the city of Xi’an,
China, in 1974, they made one of the greatest archaeological
discoveries in the world. (1)
The workers told the
Chinese authorities and archaeologists came to the site
where they found thousands more soldiers.
The soldiers are in underground corridors. They are similar to
each other, but each one has a slightly different appearance
and character. (2)
This terracotta army was
constructed to travel with the First Emperor of China into the
afterlife, according to the archaeologists.
At the age of 13, in 246 BC , Ying Zheng became emperor
of the states of what we now know as China. (3)
these states he created the empire of Qin. During his rule,
Ying Zheng standardised coins, weights and measures.
He also authorised the building of the Great Wall
Relatively early, he began planning his tomb and the
terracotta army which he needed for the afterlife.
Archaeologists have studied four areas around the tomb, but
they haven’t started digging where Ying Zheng is probably
It says the tomb has models of palaces
made from precious stones and metals such as bronze.
Culture and civilisations
Vocabulary: an ancient civilisation
Grammar: modals of obligation
and ability in the past
1 Go through the text on page 58 in the Student’s
Book again and find words and expressions that
mean the following.
4 Spośród podanych opcji (A–C) wybierz tę,
1 a building where people worship their god(s) –
która jest tłumaczeniem fragmentu podanego
w nawiasie, poprawnie uzupełniającym lukę
w zdaniu. Zakreśl literę: A, B lub C.
2 to make plants get bigger by watering them –
1 Fortunately, we
(nie musieliśmy zostać)
after classes to rehearse the performance.
3 able to produce good crops –
4 the science dealing with keeping animals and
growing crops for food –
A needn’t stay B didn’t need to stay
C needn’t have stayed
5 permanently wet when talking about the land –
(zdołał pokonać) the whole distance
in less than two hours.
6 the best time in a period of existence –
A could cover B could have covered
C was able to cover
7 the layer of the earth in which plants grow –
(niepotrzebnie się spieszyli) so
much as the train was delayed.
2 Fill in the gaps with the expressions from the box.
A needn’t have hurried B didn’t need to hurry
C didn’t have to hurry
at the peak
series of droughts
(nie potrafiła pomóc) her brother
with his homework as she wasn’t all that good
Maya created one of the most
advanced civilisations and around 800 AD they were
of their history.
A couldn’ t help B can’t have helped
C couldn’t have helped
2 They used an advanced numbering system, and
5 Complete the sentences with appropriate modal
verbs. Sometimes the sentence is in the negative.
1 When Mark was a professional swimmer, he
get up at 5 am every morning.
were built for the kings, whereas poor
people lived in
2 Believe it or not, but I
I was 5.
of that great civilisation could have
been caused by a
that caused famine and
a shortage of water.
3 It’s really good we
study for the test
last evening. We had some free time at last.
3 Przeczytaj tekst. Uzupełnij każdą lukę (1–4), przekształcając jeden
z wyrazów z ramki w taki sposób, aby powstał spójny i logiczny
tekst. Wymagana jest pełna poprawność gramatyczna
i ortograficzna wpisywanych wyrazów. Uwaga: dwa wyrazy zostały
podane dodatkowo i nie pasują do żadnej luki.
play chess when
The Mayan people had an unusual and advanced (1)
system. At the time, most of the world had no concept of the number zero.
The Maya, however, (2)
a flat, round shape as a symbol to
represent it. They also thought that certain numbers were very important,
e.g. the number 20 indicated the total number of fingers and toes and
the number 52 stood for the number of years in a Mayan century. The
Mayan people also viewed the passage of time differently from many other
cultures. They didn’t use a chart with rows of numbers (3)
days and months but several different calendars at the same time, mainly
told them the
truth. It made them really sad but it’s
too late now …
5 I was really impressed when I saw
swim 2 hours
believe his eyes
when he unwrapped his birthday
present and found a plane ticket to
Writing: an article
1 The parts of this article, called ‘My favourite day’ are
If you ask people about their favourite day of the year,
in the wrong order. Put them in the right order by
numbering them from 1 to 4.
My favourite day
We always celebrate with
Before the actual day, there are lots of preparations to do.
First of all, you need to invite all the people you would like
to attend. Believe it or not, but many people travel hundreds
of miles from other states to see their nearest and dearest!
The other really important part of the holiday is the meal and
turkey is a must on every American table! Can you believe that
about 45 million are eaten in America on this day?
First of all,
You also need to
We spend all day getting things ready for
If you ask people ‘what’s your favourite day’?, you’ll probably
get several different answers. Christmas, the first day of
spring, the last day of school, and many others. Have YOU
ever thought what is your special day of the year? What makes
it so unique?
Finally, when everyone has arrived,
I love Christmas Eve because
It’s always exciting to see the whole family as they arrive. After
an enormous meal the atmosphere is usually very relaxed,
with older members of the family just chatting and the kids
playing. What makes this day so unique is that it is a genuine
family celebration so no one expects presents or gifts. And …
after Thanksgiving Day the whole country starts preparing for
3 How similar is her Christmas Eve to yours? What
My favourite day is Thanksgiving Day, on the fourth Thursday
in November. This holiday has its roots in history as every
year we want to remember some of the first people to arrive
in North America four hundred years ago. Their first year was
very difficult so at the end of 12 months they gave thanks to
God. Nowadays families still get together and give thanks for
all the blessings they have received. It’s also a chance to see
relatives or old friends you haven’t seen for a while.
information would you add or leave out?
4 Napisz artykuł (200–250 słów) na stronę
internetową Twojej szkoły na temat Twojego
ulubionego dnia w roku. Wyjaśnij, co sprawia,
że jest on wyjątkowy, oraz opisz, jak go zwykle
2 A Polish student is writing about her favourite day of the year. She has prepared this plan.
Use the information in the plan to complete her article.
Location / People
– with all the family
– at my house with relatives
In the evening
– wait for everyone to arrive
– look for first star so we can start a meal composed
of 12 dishes
– lay the table
Feelings / Emotions
– put hay under the tablecloth
– exciting to see everyone
– lay a plate for an unexpected guest
– Christmas Day seems a bit
– food: pierogi, borsch or wild mushroom soup, herrings and carp
boring in comparison!
1 What would you say in the following situations?
Make sure you use modal verbs.
3 Circle the correct answer.
1 You are sure Sarah is pregnant.
1 If you do not want to queue / stand for a ticket you
may buy one online.
2 You think it is possible your friend has read all the
books by Charles Dickens.
2 If you want to see contemporary / old masters
works of art you should visit / watch the Tate
Modern in London.
3 Modern art can be awful / astonishing but on the
other / another hand it sometimes makes you think.
3 You are sure Mark didn’t quit his job.
4 If you want to go straight / walk into the exhibition,
you have to buy tickets in advance / in the ticket
4 You know Tara was forced to sell her jewellery.
5 You think it’s possible that your friends bought tickets
for your favourite band’s concert.
6 You know the person you are talking to is your new
4 Read the description. Complete it with words
beginning with the letter ‘s’.
The picture (1) s
someone working hard.
He looks very serious and he’s doing (2) s
with metal, I think. He (3) s
to be joining
the pieces of metal together. On the left is an object.
Perhaps he is an archaeologist and he’s found it. Maybe
of a hat for a soldier. It might be
it’s a (4) s
from (5) s
kind of ancient civilisation.
7 You want to know if Sally was able to read and write
when she was four.
8 You want to tell your sister it was silly of her to get
so stressed before the exam as she did really well.
2 Put the following adjectives in the correct order.
5 Look at this picture and complete the description
1 Susan brought a blue / round / Spanish plate.
with your own words.
2 The most incredible present I got for my birthday
was a French / canvas / nice bag.
This picture shows some teenage girls
They all seem to be
3 Have you seen Tom’s new girlfriend?
She is a pretty / young / slim lady.
The girl in the middle looks
4 My brother brought me a cotton / yellow T-shirt
when he was on his holiday in Hawaii.
5 We have to throw away the red / old carpet from the
6 A huge / wonderful sculpture made the biggest
impression on me.
7 I am dreaming of a(n) silk / Italian scarf.
8 Sally has a Polish / handsome boyfriend. He is very
polite to all her friends.
9 I was so terrified! Suddenly I saw a(n) grey /
enormous shape on the wall!
10 My daughter wants to take a brown / young dog
from the shelter.
Now I can …
talk about festivals around the world and cultural heritage.
describe an event.
write an article.
use modal verbs for speculating.
use modal verbs of obligation and for ability in the past.
use correct adjective order.
Extra skills practice
Słuchanie ze zrozumieniem
Czytanie ze zrozumieniem
3 Przeczytaj poniższy tekst, a następnie każdemu
fragmentowi (1–4) przyporządkuj nagłówek (A–F),
wpisując w kratki odpowiednie litery. Uwaga: dwa
nagłówki zostały podane dodatkowo i nie pasują do
Ćwiczenia typu dobieranie – o czym należy pamiętać?
Zadania na dobieranie obejmują zadania na słuchanie i czytanie
i polegają na dobieraniu nagłówków do poszczególnych
osób lub akapitów, tytułów do całych fragmentów tekstu oraz
brakujących zdań do luk w tekście.
W przypadku dobierania nagłówków pamiętaj, że:
• odnoszą się one do głównej myśli danego fragmentu tekstu,
a nie do np. jednego zdania;
• warto w nagłówkach zakreślić słowa kluczowe, a następnie
w tekście poszukać fragmentów zawierających podobne
informacje, wyrażone innymi słowami;
• nawet jeśli w nagłówkach pojawią się synonimy lub wyrazy
podobne do użytych w tekście, zawsze najistotniejsza jest
• czytając fragmenty tekstu, warto skoncentrować się na
wyszukiwaniu różnic miedzy nimi, a nie podobieństw.
W przypadku uzupełniania tekstu brakującymi fragmentami
• należy zacząć od przeczytania całego tekstu i zrozumienia
jego myśli ogólnej;
• przy wpisywaniu w luki odpowiednich fragmentów należy
zwrócić uwagę na poszczególne elementy leksykalne
i gramatyczne – zaimki, czasy itp.;
• powstały tekst ma być poprawny pod względem
gramatycznym i logicznym. Po uzupełnieniu wszystkich luk
przeczytaj cały tekst ponownie.
CD2/04 Usłyszysz dwukrotnie wypowiedzi czterech
osób na temat szkół przetrwania. Do każdej osoby
(1–4) dopasuj właściwy nagłówek (A–E).
Uwaga: jeden nagłówek został podany dodatkowo
i nie pasuje do żadnej wypowiedzi.
Identify and neutralise risks
Escape a rough landing
Endure freezing temperatures
Learn about team work by surviving in extreme
E How to find your way in the wilderness
CD2/05 Usłyszysz dwukrotnie cztery wypowiedzi
na temat niezwykłych tradycji. Do każdej
wypowiedzi (1–4) dopasuj pytanie (A–E). Wpisz
rozwiązania do tabeli. Uwaga: jedno pytanie
zostało podane dodatkowo i nie pasuje do żadnej
Which festival …
A involves speed?
B is not held every year?
C is not what it might at first seem?
D has an uncertain origin?
E has the shortest tradition?
Origins of the language
The variety of Native American cultures
The language of the newcomers
An ancient discovery in the rubble
The building falls to pieces
Unlike any other
In 2008 a battered piece of paper was pulled from the
ruins of an ancient Spanish colonial church. It turned out
to be a 400-year-old letter that had been penned by an
unknown Spanish author and lost for four centuries. Notes
on the back of it have revealed a previously unknown
language that was once spoken by the indigenous peoples
of northern Peru. But scientists have only recently revealed
the importance of these words.
The early 17th-century author had translated the Spanish
numbers – uno, dos, tres – and Arabic numerals into
a mysterious language never seen by modern scholars.
‘Even though the letter doesn’t tell us much, it does tell
us about a language that is very different from anything
we’ve ever known – and it suggests that there may be
a lot more languages out there,’ said project leader Jeffrey
Quilter, an archaeologist at Harvard’s Peabody Museum of
Archaeology and Ethnology.
The new-found native language may have borrowed
from Quechua, a language still spoken by the indigenous
peoples of Peru. However, it was clearly a unique tongue,
and possibly either Quingnam or Pescadora – ‘the
language of the fishers.’ The writings also include translated
numbers, which tell us that the lost language’s numerical
system was a ten-based or decimal system – like English.
This was not the case with all native American cultures.
While the Inca used a ten-based system, many other
cultures did not: the Maya, for example, used a base of 20,
according to Quilter.
Finding the new language at Magdalena de Cao Viejo
helps to reinforce our knowledge of the rich diversity of
cultures in the early colonial Americas. We often think
of a confrontation between the Spanish and Native
Americans, but in almost every place, from Massachusetts
to Peru, was more diversity than we may imagine. For
example, colonialists from many parts of Europe were
referred to as ‘the Spanish’ by the Native Americans, and
in the Americas there were people who spoke many
different languages and had different customs. The letter
helps to show how rich and diverse that world was.
Extra skills practice
4 Przeczytaj tekst, który został podzielony na trzy
części (A–C), oraz pytania ich dotyczące (1–4).
Do każdego pytania dopasuj właściwą część tekstu.
Wpisz rozwiązania do tabeli. Uwaga: jedna część
tekstu pasuje do dwóch pytań.
5 Przeczytaj regulamin konkursu fotograficznego.
Dopasuj właściwe pytanie (A–F) do każdej
z oznaczonych części tekstu (1–4). Wpisz
odpowiednią literę w każdą kratkę.
Uwaga: dwa pytania zostały podane dodatkowo
i nie pasują do żadnej części tekstu.
A What is expected of me?
Fancy a dish of poisonous fugu fish? How about sheep’s
heads and rotting shark? All of these foods are delicacies
on menus around the world. In fact, what’s good or bad
is all a matter of taste. Food taboos and delicacies often
arise from cultural and religious beliefs; one person’s
meat is another’s poison. The humble hamburger,
a mainstay of US cuisine, is a forbidden food for Hindus.
Pork is also off the menu for many Jews and Muslims.
More than 1,400 species of protein-packed insects are
part of African, Asian, Australian and Latin American
cuisine, but one would be hard-pressed to find these
creepy crawlies in a US restaurant (at least in the menu).
‘Food is often a taboo or a subject triggering disgust
because it is internalised. Any disgust we have for the
food is magnified by the thought that it will become
part of us,’ says Carole Counihan, an ethnographer at
Millersville University in Pennsylvania. In New York, rats
are considered filthy creatures that consume human
garbage, carry disease and live in human waste – eating
one would be unthinkable. But in the West African nation
of Togo, rats live a more wholesome existence in the
forests and are sold in the village markets. ‘[West African]
rats are more like squirrels. They’re not in an environment
that’s filled with human filth,’ says Paul Rozin, a professor
of psychology at the University of Pennsylvania in
Food symbolises many aspects of everyday culture and
is a vehicle for social relations. In February, the people
of Iceland celebrate an old tradition called Thorrablot
– the festival of feasts. The feast comprises some
unusual delicacies such as sheeps’ heads and rotting
shark. Although these dishes strike most outsiders as
disgusting, for Icelanders the feasts are a great way
to preserve their Viking heritage. ‘The purpose of
continuing to eat these foods makes the rituals real and
distinguishes the festival culture from everyday life – it
reinforces history,’ says Nan Rothschild, an archaeologist
at Barnard College in New York. It also provides
a bonding experience for Icelanders. ‘By eating these
foods – which can be hard to eat – you prove your tie
to the community,’ Rothschild says.
B What can I get?
C What problems may I face?
D Am I eligible to enter?
E What should I avoid?
F What are the different stages of the competition?
PHOTO CONTEST RULES AND REGULATIONS
The contest is open to individuals at least 18 years
of age who are not professional photographers.
The contest is open to all participants regardless of
residence or citizenship, except individuals affiliated
with the organisers including employees, volunteers
and their immediate family members.
The images must be in digital format and they
should showcase the beauty of wildlife and highlight
the harmony between nature and people. There is
a limit of 10 entries per person. Each entry should be
accompanied by an entry form completed with the
required information and should be submitted online.
The First Place Winner will receive a substantial
cheque and his/her photograph will be published in
a high-ranking journal. Two runners- up will be invited
to participate in a prestigious wildlife photography
seminar. Prizes are non-transferable and may not be
substituted in any form.
Entries will be evaluated twice. In the first round a panel
of experts will shortlist 15 entries from among all
eligible entries. In round two the First Prize Winner and
two runners-up will be selected based on the following
criteria: creativity, photographic quality, colour. The
winners will be notified by email. The decisions of the
judges are final.
In which paragraph does the author …
say that what we eat is not only a matter of personal likes and dislikes?
say that what we eat is not only a matter of taste?
say that eating is not always pleasurable?
say that what we eat depends on our associations with the food?
Extra skills practice
1 Uzupełnij poniższe minidialogi (1–4), wybierając
brakującą wypowiedź jednej z osób. Zakreśl literę:
A, B lub C.
1 X: Why do you think he left so early?
X: That’s a pity.
A He just had to.
B He just must have.
C He just couldn’t.
2 X: I’ve bought two kilograms of strawberries.
X: What? Did you buy some too?
A You didn’t have to.
B You didn’t need to.
C You needn’t have.
3 X: Did you see his face?
X: And he couldn’t hide his emotions.
A He was really overjoyed to hear the news.
B He was really cheerful to hear that.
C He was really fascinated to hear that.
4 X: It’s impossible that she did it on her own.
X: Yeah, I think you’re right.
A Someone needn’t help her.
B Someone might have helped her.
C Someone had to help her.
2 Wybierz słowo, które poprawnie uzupełnia luki
w obydwu zdaniach. Zakreśl literę: A, B lub C.
1 Some of the rare objects
display in our local
museum are absolutely priceless.
average, there are thirty students in each class.
2 Michelangelo created amazing
Due to road
, traffic is seriously delayed in
illegal art and smuggling is severely
I had a hard exam so I had to cram
1 A positive attitude
His summer cottage is
life helps to solve lots
3 Przeczytaj poniższy tekst i uzupełnij każdą z luk
słowem utworzonym od słowa w nawiasach tak,
aby otrzymać logiczny i gramatycznie poprawny tekst.
George Orwell was the pen name of Eric Blair, an English
(SOCIAL) and political
(THINK) who wrote novels , essays and
He is (3)
(GOOD) known for his fierce
(CRITICISE) of the squalid living and
working conditions of working class people in 1930s
Britain, as recorded in Down and Out in Paris and London
and The Road to Wigan Pier, and for his political satire
(TOTAL) government, Animal
Farm. In his dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four the
main character Winston Smith lives in a world of
perpetual war in which public (6)
and mind control results in the individual’s will being
subjugated. There is no happy ending. Winston is arrested
and tortured for his (7)
changed back to become an (8)
4 Uzupełnij każde z podanych zdań tak, aby zachować
znaczenie zdania wyjściowego i wykorzystać słowo
podane wytłuszczonym drukiem. Wymagana jest
pełna poprawność ortograficzna wpisywanych
1 The thief forgot where he had hidden
the stolen treasures.
where he had hidden the stolen treasures.
2 It was necessary for this nomadic tribe
to leave this area.
leave this area.
3 This evidence shows that a volcanic eruption
destroyed the civilization at the peak
of its history.
A volcanic eruption
the civilization at the peak of its history.
4 Probably, this handcrafted clothing
belonged to an ancient ruler of Persia.
This handcrafted clothing
an ancient ruler of Persia.
5 I am sure they celebrated their
their wedding anniversary.
Extra skills practice
Rozprawka „za i przeciw”
1Przeczytaj tematy rozprawek 1–3 i do każdego
z nich dopasuj po dwa argumenty za i przeciw
z listy. Niektóre argumenty mogą pasować do
2W Twojej szkole odbył się Dzień Europejski,
podczas którego każda klasa prezentowała
informacje dotyczące jednego państwa. Napisz
artykuł (200–250 słów) do szkolnej gazetki,
w którym opiszesz najciekawsze prezentacje
oraz przedstawisz swoją opinię dotyczącą
1 Żywność modyfikowana genetycznie – dobrodziejstwo
2 Portale społecznościowe stają się coraz bardziej
popularne. Napisz rozprawkę na temat zalet i wad
korzystania z nich.
3 Urządzenia elektroniczne, takie jak komputery czy
telefony komórkowe, odgrywają coraz większą rolę
w życiu współczesnego człowieka. Przedstaw zalety
i wady tego zjawiska.
3Dobrą praktyką jest zebranie informacji
i przygotowanie planu swojej wypowiedzi. Uzupełnij
mapę mentalną informacjami, które wykorzystasz
w swoim artykule, oraz napisz kilka punktów planu
1 bring together people with similar interests and aims
2 resistant to weeds, therefore fewer herbicides will be
3 easy access to information
4 opportunity to create a positive self-image
5 staying in touch all the time
6 no problem of famine
A some pictures or information you post may be
against school rules or the code of conduct
B some teenagers may cyberbully their peers by
sending or posting texts or images intended to hurt
or embarrass other people
C poor countries will stay poor, as big corporations
worry more about profits, not people
D excessive use of computers may turn into an
E use of antibiotics in plants will lead to new diseases
that are resistant to them
F you do not know the true identity of the people you