Witold Rudnicki - Instytut Informatyki UwB

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Witold Rudnicki - Instytut Informatyki UwB
Bioinformatyka
Witold Rudnicki
Warszawa
18.05.2015
Materiały
Wykłady: •
Introductory Bioinforma9cs, Fourth Edi9on. Stefanie Hartmann, Joachim Selbig •
Bioinforma9cs and Func9onal Genomics, Second Edi9on Jonathan Pevsner. •
Bioinforma9cs for Dummies, Second Edi9on Jean-­‐Michel Claverie and Cedric Notredame
Warszawa
18.05.2015
Materiały
Laboratorium: •
Manuale R: hLp://cran.r-­‐project.org/manuals.html •
Manuale Python: hLps://docs.python.org/3/ •
Manual Biopython: hLp://biopython.org/DIST/docs/tutorial/Tutorial.html •
Manual Bioconductor: hLp://manuals.bioinforma9cs.ucr.edu
Warszawa
18.05.2015
Format
Laboratoria: Jak wykonać różne zadania? !
Wykłady: Jak to działa?
Warszawa
18.05.2015
Format
Wykład: Jak to działa? •
•
•
•
•
•
•
Wprowadzenie do biologii molekularnej Analiza sekwencji -­‐ wyszukiwanie sekwencji podobnych Biologiczne bazy danych Bioinformatyka strukturalna, własności fizykochemiczne aminokwasów, własności białek R -­‐ środowisko analiz statystycznych i język programowania Metody doświadczalne biologii molekularnej Analiza sekwencji -­‐ identyfikacja genów, sekwencjonowanie nowej generacji, genomika, warianty strukturalne
Warszawa
18.05.2015
Format
Laboratorium: Jak to wykonać? Nauczymy się: 1. Podstawowych zadań wykonywanych przez bioinformatyków 2. Podstaw dwóch języków kluczowych w bioinformatyce: Python i R 3. Wykorzystywania bibliotek gotowych procedur bioinformatycznych: 1. Bioconductor 2. Biopython 4. Tworzenia protokołów przetwarzania danych
Warszawa
18.05.2015
Co to jest bioinformatyka
• Wąsko -­‐ budowa i wykorzystanie biologicznych baz danych • Szeroko -­‐ wykorzystanie komputerów do rozwiązywania problemów w biologii
Warszawa
18.05.2015
Po co bioinformatyka informatykom?
• Fascynująca dziedzina nauki pozwalająca włączyć się informatykom w odkrywanie wiedzy o świecie • Kopalnia nowych problemów algorytmicznych i praktycznych • Wyzwania czysto techniczne -­‐ wzrost objętości danych silnie szybszy niż prawo Moore’a • Przykład zastosowania informatyki w dziedzinach praktycznych
Warszawa
18.05.2015
History of life
Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics, Pevsner 2011
Evolu9on of life
Warszawa
18.05.2015
Tree of life
XVII century -­‐ Linnaeus -­‐ the systema9cs Three kingdoms: Animaliae Plantae Mineraliae !
Currently: Three superkingdoms: Bacteria Archea Eukaryota !
!
!
Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics, Pevsner 2011
!
Warszawa
18.05.2015
!
Currently: Three superkingdoms: Bacteria Archea Eukaryota !
Gelidium caulacantheum
Pterocladia lucida
Pterocladia capillacea
Pterocladiella capillacea
Pterocladiella melanoidea
Ptilophora pinnatifida
Ptilophora subcostata
Gelidiella acerosa
Grateloupia filicina
Cryptonemia undulata
Carpopeltis phyllophora
Halymenia plana
Sebdenia flabellata
Lomentaria australis
Lomentaria baileyana
Gloioderma fruticulosa
Champia affinis
Cephalocystis furcellata
Cephalocystis leucobotrys
Erythrocolon podagricum
Epymenia wilsonis
Rhodymenia linearis
Cordylecladia erecta
Plocamiocolax pulvinata
Plocamium cartilagineum
Plocamium angustum
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Dacr ycar
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Dacr his
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Agat caria cunn lsa is
Arau caria exce
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Orthot ruralis ta us
Tortula trunca
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m
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Dicran mitrium affine ophyllu
Ptychomnium hymen
Plagio nium
Cyrtom hornum
stygium s
Mnium ium
Cinclid cruda bryoide ta
Pohlia hoferia elonga
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Mielich hoferia eri
Mielich boland macroc
e
Pohlia omum a
Leptost uliginos
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Meesia ryum mnioide
Leptob don luteum
m
a
Tetraplonum
Splach lingulat pulchru
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Tayloria meniumgigante
Brachy ryum m
Rhodobdonianu
Bryum alpinum icium m
Bryum caespitjulaceu
Bryum bryum um
carpa
s
Anomo argente
Bryum ta rhapdo
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Encalypttonia
Bryobri ria aquatic tica
Scoule lis antipyre
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Fontina ntium
Orthodo ia stricta
scens
Bartram ia ciliata
purpura
Hedwig arpus
Rhacoc tis fontana mis
gratiae
Philono ia pomifor
m
vallis
Bartram ryum undulatu m
Pyrrhob ecium rutabuluta
Plagioth ecium cuspida
Brachyth nella iformens
us
Calliergo cupress
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Hypnum ium
e
Hylocomdelphuspyriform
Rhytidia itrium trica
Physcomhygromepatens
Funaria itrella
lis
Physcomsibiricaautumna
Timmia iella leiantha
Jamesonannia
e
Jungerm ia arguta
commun
um
Calypogeum
Polytrich angustat
Atrichum um formosum
Polytrich undulatum
Atrichum pellucida
Tetraphis rupestrisides
Andreaealepidozio
Takakia rothii
Andreaeaos agrestis
Anthocer os laevis
Anthocer
epiphylla
Pellia
nemorea
brongartiis
Scapania yna
Symphyoga adiantoide
Plagiochil a tomentella lla
Trichocole a heterophy
s
Lophocole onia pusilla
Fossombr onia brasiliensi
Fossombr furcata
Metzgeriaium hookeri
Haplomitr pinguis ii
Riccardia
hornemann
Chara curtissii
Chara hispida
Chara foetida
Chara vulgaris
Chara connivens
Chara muelleri
Chara australis macropogon
nium
Chara
Lamprotham nium papulosum
Lamprotham nus barbatus
Lychnothamobtusa
Nitellopsis
preissii
Chara axillaris
Nitella porteri
Tolypellaflexilis
Nitella
scutata
Coleochaete orbicularis
Coleochaete m flaccidum
Klebsormidiu atmophyticus
Chlorokybus a longiseta
Raphidonemus aerius
tus
Bracteacocc us grandis
Bracteacoccus medionuclea
Nehypochtho s magnus
Trhypochthonnius porosus
Archegozete ius tectorum
s longisetosus
Allonothrus
Euzetes russeolus
Xenillus globulosus
tegeocranus
Nothrus
sylvestris
Lohmannia
Hypochthoniu banksi
Cosmolaelapss rufulus
Megisthanus trifidus
floridanus
Argas persicus
Argas lahorensis
Otobius megnini
Ornithodoros
Ornithodoroscoriaceus
moubata
Carios puertoricensis
Ixodes holocyclus
kopsteini
Ixodes Ixodes
simplex simplex
Ixodes cookei
Ixodes pilosus
Ixodes affinis
Ixodes
Ixodes ricinus
Aponomma auritulus
Aponomma concolor
undatum
Haemaphysalis
Haemaphysalis
leachi
Haemaphysalis petrogalis
humerosa
Haemaphysalis
leporispalustris
Haemaphysalis
Haemaphysalispunctata
inermis
Amblyomma
Amblyomma maculatum
Amblyomma americanum
tuberculatum
Amblyomma variegatum
Aponomma latum
Aponomma fimbriatum
vikirri
Amblyomma Amblyomma
triguttatum triguttat
Dermacentor marginatus
Dermacentor andersoni
Rhipicephalus
pusillus
Boophilus annulatus
Rhipicephalus bursa
Rhipicephalus zambeziensis
Boophilus microplus
Rhipicephalus sanguineus
Hyalomma dromedarii
Hyalomma rufipes
Hyalomma lusitanicum
Rhipicephalus appendiculatus
Polydesmus coriaceus
Cylindroiulus punctatus
Clinopodes poseidonis
Pseudohimantarium mediterraneum
Scutigera coleoptrata
Lithobius variegatus
Craterostigmus tasmanianus
Cryptops trisulcatus
Scolopendra cingulata
Theatops erythrocephala
Podura aquatica
Hypogastrura dolsana
Crossodonthina koreana
Lepidocyrtus paradoxus
Lepisma saccharina
Aeschna cyanea
Mesoperlina pecircai
Acheta domesticus
Carausius morosus
Batrachideidae gen sp
Aonidiella aurantii
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pealius kelloggii
Trioza eugeniae
Okanagana utahensis
Philaenus spumarius
Prokelisia marginata
Spissistilus festinus
Hackeriella veitchi
Hemiowoodwardia wilsoni
Lygus hesperus
Raphigaster nebulosa
Graphosoma lineatum
Polistes dominulus
Leptothorax acervorum
Phaeostigma notata
Clambus arnetti
Meloe proscarabaeus
Tenebrio molitor
Dynastes granti
Xanthopyga cacti
Hydroscapha natans
Copelatus chevrolati renovatus
Suphis inflatus
Oregus aereus
Mecodema fulgidum
Blethisa multipunctata aurata
Elaphrus clairvillei
Elaphrus californicus
Systolosoma lateritium
Trachypachus holmbergi
Trachypachus gibbsii
Notiophilus semiopacus
Nebria hudsonica
Leistus ferruginosus
Opisthius richardsoni
Cychrus italicus
catalinae
Scaphinotus petersi nemoralis
Carabus
Calosoma scrutator
Pamborus guerinii
Ceroglossus chilensis
Psydrus piceus
Omophron obliteratum
Laccocenus ambiguus
crassus
Promecognathusolympica
Gehringia
pictulum
Cymbionotum
semelederi
Cymbionotum
Pachyteles striola
Metrius contractus
sedecimpunctata
CicindelaOmus
californicus
hamatus
Omoglymmius
Clinidium calcaratum
Siagona jennisoni
Siagona europaea
Carenum interruptum
Scarites subterraneus
atronitens
Pasimachus
aequinoctialis
Pheropsophus
Brachinus hirsutus
armiger
Brachinus aridus
Morion
brasiliensis
Catapiesis sulciferus
Cnemalobus
n sp nr amplithora
punctigera
Loxandrus
Cymindis
Agonum extensicolle
Amara apricaria
Calybe laetula
ruficauda
Chlaenius
cordicollis
Discoderus latipennis
Tetragonoderusmelanarius
Pterostichus
Aptinus displosor
rufulus
Pseudaptinuslecontei
lecontei eydouxi
GaleritaCreobius
relictum
Broscosomarufithorax
curtus
Apotomus
Amblytelusvulcans
Mecyclothoraxpicipennis
Melisodera
sphaericollis
Dyschirius Clivina ferrea
falli
hilaris
Schizogenius
Batesiana
tasmaniae
Sloaneanaangusticollis
Merizodus Zolus helmsi
planatus
Diplochaetus laetulus
Pericompsus
longicornis
Patrobus californicus
curtum
Diplous
Asaphidion
carrianum
levettei
mexicanum
Bembidion
Bembidion
edwardsi
Amarotypus pilicornis
pilicornis foveata
s
Loricera Loricera
us complanatu
ovalipennis
Antarctonom
clara
Monolobus
Oliarcescarnea
a
Anisochrysgermanica
Panorpaylla erinacei
Archaeops mellonella
Galleria chobauti
Mengenilla melittae
Stylopsvesparum
Xenos vittatum
Simulium
mia rhamphes
Amblabes s variipenni
cornutadi
Culicoide
Dixella
a underwoo
Eucorethr s albimanus
Anophele nctipennis
s psuedopu ynchus
sis
tritaeniorh
Anophele
Culex
ambionen
punctor
hites Aedes
aegyptis
Toxorhync
Aedes
albopictu
Aedes a shannoni
Lutzomyima altissima
a vicina
Nephroto
Ornithoic capitata
ster
Ceratitis
la melanoganigerii
Drosophi Chrysops
emerson
nus
diella
tus
Blastocla s macrogy
acumina is
Allomyce
yces commun
as
joyonii
Spizellom
Piromonmastix frontalis
e
Neocalli astix
Neocallim m conferva as
Chytridiu californic
Taphrina maculan
tricolor
Taphrina
Calicium cariniis
cystis
japonicu
Pneumo
pombe
myces
ata
accharo myces
complic is
accharo
Schizos
Schizos Saitoella irregular
vitellina
Neolecta a letifera
Neolect
Taphrina iana i
robinson
wiesner
ns
Taphrina
Taphrinadeforma
ra
Taphrina populina
Taphrinaflavorub nis
Taphrina commuulmi
Taphrina
Taphrinaa pruni
Taphrin a nana
Taphrinmirabilis
a
atae
Taphrin
subcord
a carnea
a pruni
Taphrina virginicae
Taphrin
lactuca
Taphrin
yces inouyei
Protom yces ermus
Protompachyd porus
yces macros leata
Protom yces uninuclipoferis
Protomscopsis ycesdrimyd
na
a
Dipoda Waltom
Candida valdivia
rorum
Candid
a chiroptealbidus
hum
Candid scus
humii
Dipoda geotric
myces geotric
yces a vaccinres
Galacto
Endom Candid
a geocha ola
bombic
Candid
rella
a bombi
Starme Candida apicola
vensis
Candid
lis
a spando aciens
ranaef
orienta a
Candid
memb
enkiada silvatic
lens
Pichia
Issatch
Candi insectanensis
da
siana
lus
Candira naarde
custer
Dekke ra s anoma la
Dekke
omyce ra anoma
lensis
Brettan Dekke
ra bruxel lensis
da mogii
Dekke es bruxel
rrima
ufii
nomyc Candi
is
ia pulche
ia reuka
Bretta
hnikow
idata i
da agrest
Metsc hnikow
Metsc Candi
ia bicusp
da torresi
osica
hnikowCandimelibi iae
da lusitan yae
Metsc
Candi pora tsuchiulonii
Clavis idahaemnensis
Candda
Candida orego nensis
edia
Candida akaba
intermmedia
Candi daointer lataa
Candi
catenu
tica
da pseudda da rugos
Candi Candi
Candi lipoly ans
wia otoler iae
Yarrotherms opuntnsis
s
ca
antille
myce myce
es ida sueci a
ntericica
Phaffo Phaffo
omyc
Candmese
Phaff
racea
ida ida savon
sis
cylind
Cand
Cand
ida chilen
philussa
Cand idatanno
Cand n
muco ii
nus
ysole psisvar mrak
Pach Willionus satur ala
satur psis anom ea
cariba
psis WillioPichia
era ameth
Willio
pachy
Starm var
var rnica
ioninaa
nsis
amethhionin califo
prate m
era amet psis
psis uvaru gii
ludwi
Starm era Willio
Willio pora
waltii
Starm
enias es
yces ans
Hans ycod
otoler eri
harom erom
therm kluyvntatillii
Sacc Kluyv
yces ycesferme
caste ttii
erom haromyces
yces barne us
Kluyv Sacc arom yces exigu um
sacch harom yces ceror nus
Zygo Sacc harom spenafrica ii
rosinrae
Sacc harom
Sacc yces ycesyces
lodde wiis
haromerom
yces yarro
poru
Sacc Kluyv harom
Saccerom yces
polys oxus
nus
Kluyv erom
yces parad
baya 2
Kluyv
erom ycesyces isiaeisiaes
cerev
Kluyv harom
harom s s cerevrianu
Sacc
Sacc myce
pasto ensis
ata
haroharomyce
yces delphglabrtinusfii
yces ida
Sacc
Saccharom
s phaf ela
erom Cand s floren
Sacc
mycemyce blatta
Kluyv
vitico
haro vero yces
nia ulosa
sacc Kluy verom
collic oideis
chsta
ida ellipsriens ii
Zygo
Kluy
Kaza
Cands micropreto uecksa ii
ra delbrglobo
myceaspo ra ra s mrak
nsis
haroTorul aspoaspo
orus
sacc
TorulTorul mycevaale azzii
harotranss unisp nsis
Zygo
serv
is
sacc s
myce ss dairetellur
Zygo myce
myce
a s bailii s
haro haro
haro mycezym
Sacc Sacc haro
myce s lenturus ii
Sacc
Arxio
haro myce
Sacc
s roux sa
s bispo
melli
sacc haro
mycemyce es caud
Zygo sacc
mii
haroharo mycsine
Zygo
erha kii
saccsacc haro ya
hans s
lactis
ZygoZygo sacc Hollees wick
dobzes ianu
Zygo
uarii
myc es myc
aest ntati s
vero mycvero es marx
Kluy veroKluy myc es ermeulari
Kluy vero mycnonf caps igera
s
iger e
KluyKluyvero esopsi s fibulfibul
myc
opsi ces orniasta
vero myc
angu sis
myc omy s salic
ia sten s
Kluy haro
Sacc haro End opsiPich erga ensirina
Sacc
Willi dida omo
coip roma sakes ii
Can
aust
ensi
dida Candida
awa kruis ila
Can dida tanz
Can
dida sophans
dida Can lyxoctam bosasa
Can
dida inse glaeaebo ana
Candida dida dogl saito atilis
Can Canpseu
dida fluvi phila
ataesa
dida Can dida ioleo
shehligno a
Can
Can palm
ctos
var
didaatae varinse orussis
ataevar gisp
Can
psiloerae
shehsheh
thii
atae elon
para loddana osa
dida
yces
Can didasheh
dida dida malt nsis
Can
dida eromCan Can visw
linie ans s
dida dida
Can Lodd
dub albicicali e
i
Can Can
dida dida trop soja
seni
Can Can dida didahan elliinii
Can Can es castude
myc es es osa ii
ond
aryo mycmycia farin wii
Deb aryoaryoPich iermfarlo fabrs ii
DebDeb
a guillrina i var han
ond s
zym Taph seniii var
ierm arensis
han
ada
aen obii
es sen
Yam myc hania guill entic
es
ferm yam xest phila
hila i
aryomyc Pichdida fukudida oso
gluc hrop frag is
Debaryo
Can dida Can psyc dida lensusa
dida
Deb
Can
Can nata rcitr nae
Can dida
ides
dida que regi
Can
anobeechii
tam
Can dida hiae
sis
zeyl
Can sop dida san
bra
sii
var nen
dida dida
Can e ralu memkris
Can Can ariadida var
eliae ii
e didalaur atav la
tam
a
san Can aria Candida sch ticophil is
tam
dida san
Can dida bole
oleo mm ris
Can dida
Can dida
didamultige gula ens ii
ifaci rich is
Can
Can
Can ia trian
branfried ensrica a
dida
Can Pichmemdida buinhae ntic iae
atla
dida Can dida osp ensndra is
Can atmdida diddode tenu
Can
emaum
didaCandida nae
ri
Can Can dida didadronctor buty eri
Canden
Can dida insedida aas ata a
didaCan dida globican us
Can
Can
Can conmex olat ldiiia
dida ia line skjobad ra
Can Pich lus holmiza spothus
oboeus Pez nthoxan desia
zioi dot a
Asccoth
a acaano lepi cos
dier mel terfe suc ariaus a
The
que areniasc
Bou us ezia
iza
ulatrmis a
hloe Terf iza ezia flex
Pez PezTerf ia undbrifo por
hyp
Pac
Caz zinacere cros tanaica
Rhi ya ma monforn idesta i
tra
notr cinaomi cali ucoulensne
lale
Hyd DisGyr iname esc tula osalis m
rhiz
itra rya vencau
udo itra om not is sub ianuemicaica
om
PseGyr GyrHydDisciotula thusboh con a ta
elat
her carpa pa
ella ulen alism
Fiscgium Ver Verrch esc
hiemosu tidia
can
ola ta
Mo ella ula
glob
Leu
rch Urn a ia rhyacictrac ca
Mo
om ella pro tria
a aus
cosPlectan
zier
Sar ma om ha
rostcyp
DesMiccos
Sar
Bracteacocc s minor
Bracteacoccu s giganteus
Bracteacoccu
zofingiensis
Chlorella
us stipitatus
Ankistrodesm ovalternuscapitatus
Scenedesmus producto
Scenedesmus obliquus
Scenedesmus rubescens
Scenedesmus vacuolatus
Scenedesmusoocystiformis
Scotiellopsis terrestris
Scotiellopsismultistriata
Coelastrella pupukensis
Scenedesmus costato granulatus
Scenedesmus abundans
Scenedesmus communis
Scenedesmus
aquatica
Neochloris vigenis
Neochloris hindakii
Characium reticulatum
Hydrodictyonduplex
Pediastrumaeria
echinozygotum
Tetracystis
Chlorococcum hypnosporum
Chlorococcum
moewusii
Chlamydomonas pitschmannii
Chlamydomonas noctigama
Chlamydomonas
Carteria radiosa
Carteria crucifera
Polytoma oviforme
monadina
Chlamydomonas fimbriata
Chlamydomonas rapa
Chlamydomonas asymmetrica
Chlamydomonas
Hormotila blennista
Gloeococcus maximus
baca
Chlamydomonas zebra
Chlamydomonas
Chloromonas oogama
debaryana
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Chlamydomonas
Volvox carteri
Paulschulzia pseudovolvox
Polytomella parva
Hafniomonas reticulata
Chloromonas serbinowi
nivalis
Chlamydomonas
Chloromonas rosae
Chloromonas clathrata
Chlamydomonas macrostellata
Chlamydomonas mutabilis
Chlamydomonas bipapillata
Chlamydomonas radiata
Chlorococcopsis minuta
Botryococcus braunii
Ascochloris multinucleata
Protosiphon botryoides
Spongiochloris spongiosa
Gongrosira papuasica
Characium saccatum
Characium vacuolatum
Chloromonas perforata
Chlorococcum oleofaciens
Pleurastrum insigne
Haematococcus zimbabwiensis
Polytoma ellipticum
Polytoma anomale
Polytoma mirum
Polytoma obtusum
Polytoma uvella
difficile
Polytoma
Chlamydomonas pulsatilla
Chlamydomonas humicola
Chlamydomonas dysosmos
Dunaliella parva
Dunaliella salina
Asteromonas gracilis
Spermatozopsis similis
Muriella aurantica
Chaetophora incrassata
Stigeoclonium helveticum
Fritschiella tuberosa
Hormotilopsis tetravacuolaris
Planophila terrestris
Hormotilopsis gelatinosa
Chaetopeltis orbicularis
Oedogonium cardiacum
Oedocladium carolinianum
Oedogonium angustistomum
Bulbochaete hiloensis
Pleurastrum paucicellulare
Parietochloris pseudoalveolaris
Characium perforatum
Pleurastrum erumpens
Pleurastrum terrestre
Chlorella sorokiniana
Chlorella lobophora
Chlorella vulgaris
Muriella terrestris
Chlorella kessleri
Chlorella minutissima
Nanochlorum eucaryotum
Prototheca wickerhamii
Chlorella protothecoides
Prototheca zopfii
Chlorella ellipsoidea
Chlorella mirabilis
Stichococcus bacillaris
Choricystis minor
Chlorella
Chlorella saccharophila
luteoviridis
Dictyochloropsis reticulata
Trebouxia jamesii
Trebouxia arboricola
Trebouxia asymmetrica
Trebouxia usneae
Trebouxia impressa
Myrmecia biatorellae
Friedmannia israeliensis
Myrmecia astigmatica
Trebouxia magna
Chlorella homosphaera
Microthamnion
kuetzingianum
Leptosira obovata
Siphonocladus
Ernodesmis tropicus
ver
Pro s s
!
Fung
Pleurotuscinereus
Coprinus iodes
Cortinarius
procera
Lepiota
ta
laeve
Crucibulumrugosoannula
Strophariagigantea
Calvatia striatus
Cyathus lateritia
Lentinula muscaria
Amanita
tubaeformis
Cantharellus pavonia
Dictyonema
commune
Schizophyllum
hepatica
Fistulina tuberregium
Pleurotus bisporus
Agaricus macrocephala
Tulostoma
petasatus
Pluteus
cartilagineus
Termitomyces albuminosus
Termitomyces
purpurea
Ceriporia
adusta
Bjerkandera
Phlebia radiata chrysosporium
Phanerochaete
zeae
Rhizoctoniasphaerophorus
Tretopileus
sulphurellum
Dentocorticium
Fomes fomentarius
Lentinus tigrinus
australe
Ganoderma
Trametes suaveolens
squamosus
Polyporus sulphureus
Laetiporus schweinitzii
Phaeolus spathulata
Sparassis
Antrodia carbonica
Daedalea quercina
Fomitopsis pinicola
unicolor
Spongipellis
Panus rudis
Meripilus giganteus
Albatrellus syringae
sepiarium
Gloeophyllum
Hydnum repandum
Multiclavula mucida
Clavulina cristatasubcoronatum
Botryobasidium isabellinum
Botryobasidiumcucumeris
Thanatephorus praticola
Thanatephorus
Heterotextus alpinus
Calocera cornea
Dacrymyces chrysospermus
Dacrymyces stillatus
Tsuchiaea wingfieldii
Cryptococcus neoformans
Filobasidiella neoformans
Bullera dendrophila
Trimorphomyces papilionaceus
Bullera miyagiana
Bullera globospora
Tremella globospora
Bullera pseudoalba
Bullera penniseticola
Bullera hannae
Bullera alba
Bullera unica
Tremella moriformis
Fellomyces distylii
Kockovaella schimae
Fellomyces ogasawarensis
Kockovaella phaffii
Kockovaella machilophila
Kockovaella imperatae
Kockovaella sacchari
Kockovaella thailandica
Fellomyces fuzhouensis
Fellomyces penicillatus
Fellomyces polyborus
Fellomyces horovitziae
Sterigmatosporidium polymorphum
Fibulobasidium inconspicuum
Sirobasidium magnum
Bullera coprosmaensis
Bullera oryzae
Bullera derxii
Bullera sinensis
Bullera mrakii
Bullera huiaensis
!
s us
ulanaure
reus
coag s
s
llus occu sulfu
bovis philu e
Baci hyloc ccus
ccus acido nens
Stap roco
us
Ente toco illusa tiawaicumi
Strep obac
butyrgesti lactic
ns
Lact plasmm rium acterdura
tum
Spiro tridiu
Clos bacte aerobradio
odora iae
Helio moan cusrium mon etens
Ther ococ
perfo
Dein bactea pneu
Flavo mydi rium
ia coli a us
Chla bacte
ocina
agon
Fuso erich a arianmend ila
Esch onell nas mophae rum
Salm aestu pneu rrhoeacea
Vibrio domo
Pseu nella gonosolan
rum
vitis
Legio eria riarium inosa
alis
Neiss holde legum
ana testins
Burk bacte
Agro bium mont hyoincystu
Rhizo ttsia acterchole um s
loide
Ricke pylob ter infern
Cam obac numcoral ca
Helic lfoaci us alkali
oides
ta alsa
Desu cocc
ovibri a
Myxo chae subs
Spiro lina phae caesidulae
um
philum
Spiru obium sporalaven
Chlor tomo ces lactic
acido
Tricho tomy rium rea aceto
tiacus rus
Strep bactecalca
Micro rdia terium
obscu
auran
ulatum
us
Noca ebac s
caten
Coryn coccu tophil
rium tiacus
Kineo erma
auran
Geod bacte s hilusma
Bifido oflexu
pyropmariti tum
Chlor ex
Aquif otoga occul
tenax ri
stette olans A
Therm ictium us
Pyrod oprote us fumic schii
aludis
m
Therm ococc us janna
marip tii
Therm ococcccus
cus bryan rraneu
Thermanoco
subtee
Meth nococ terium
Metha nobac teriumsicilia hilum i
Metha nobac cina
a acidopmortu
Metha nosar
maris
Metha oplasmum ificans
Therm acteridenitr a m
rus
Halob rax revers
aureuensis
Halofe ansia n
inospo
Coem actylo brazili
acum
Spirod ansia es pora
Coem comyc
pennisstrina porus
Dipsa ina alaba pteros
Linder lla ycestae us
Kickxe nsiom
culise stellat rangus
Marte um es boome us
Smitti iomyc s hibern
lis
Capn omycees
Furcul telloid aspira s
boidesola
Genis yces minutu
Spirom yces s throm vermic
ns
Spiromiobolu hthora
castra
Conid biotop a hidis
ae
Macro wellse
culiset s
Strong ra neoap
Pando thora radicanterae
Zooph thora ptycop
e
Zooph psis a aulicae
musca phora
Erynio ophag ra schizotus
Entom ophtho racorona
Entom ophtho
Entom obolus nianus
Conidi raman o
sum
Mucor muced sus racemo
Mucor racemo um m
Mucor halastrranaruis
Syncep boluspisiformphala
Basidioone polyce
Endog rella rugosa a iana
Mortie spora spinos
Acaulo spora a columb
Acaulo hospor ae rum
Entrop s mosse
geospo
e
Glomu s cf
Glomu s mossa tis
Glomu s maniho ices
Glomu s intrarad tum
Glomu s etunica um
a
Glomu s claroide me
Glomu s versifor pellucida
Glomu lospora castaneama
Scuttel spora heterog osa
Scutello spora dipapill
Scutellolospora
ita
Scuttel ora albida
margar ns
Gigasp ora decipie a
Gigasp ora gigante annii
Gigasp ora gerdeme
Gigasp pora
us
Acaulos on pyriform
botryos
ntha
Geosiph iscus
Aleurod hirsutumm leucoxa
m
Stereum stidiellu
annosu
Gloeocy annosum
Stereum asidion
bicolorm
Heterob um
Laxitext ramosu m
Hericium erinaceu
ursinus des
Hericiumlus omphalo
Lentinel lus
Lentinel ona pyxidata
vulgare i
Clavicor pium berkeley
Auriscal ewia alutum
Bondarz troma
nuda
Scytinosora
tinctorium
Penioph ntium a
Echinodocompact
Russula hispidus
Inonotus igniarius
Phellinusm biforme
violaceum
Trichaptu m abietinum
Trichaptu m fusco
Trichaptu m laricinum
radula
Trichaptu dulum
Basidioraperennis
Coltricia ra paradoxa
alutaria
Schizopo ntia stellatus
Hyphodo olus
Sphaerob saccatum
Geastrumstricta pistillaris
Ramaria elphus
Clavariad floccosus
fusiformis
Gomphus lus
Pseudoco polytricha
m
Auricularia auricula
gelatinosu
Auriculariadnum
ron
Pseudohysatanas
Boletus s chrysente
Xerocomua ravenelii um
Calostom cinnabarin
Calostoma a citrina
rus
Scleroderm
panuoides
gongylopho
Paxillus icus Atta cephalotes
ex bond
of
Leucoagar
symb
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Basid symb of Sericomyrm
mex rimos
Basid symb of Trachymyrm
coll
Basid symb of Cyphomyr ma
Basid symb of Apterostig
Basid bombacina
Athelia stipticus
Panellusphacorrhiza
Typhula serotinus
Panellus matsutake
Tricholoma umbellifera
Omphalinaostreatus
Coo
Ge
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Pau xis zett a
Pyr
Leu one Neo roc car a sulc
Otidttiel oty boncati ipe
Scucos ma
nus
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Tric Wiltelli ha dom lepo
lan
Asc
Iner hop coxnia oro esti rina
s
ode Gla
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Cha smi zielAle ia a miktella tica
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oodosc vinu helv osp iaca ia
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Bal vellvell colua arc um
Bar Bal sam a a terr mnfulg her
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LabRed Wy ssia sam ia lacu estr aris i
yrin dell nne ore ia ma nos is
Din thomom lla gonvulg gna a
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gley yce
icol
Tub Tub Tuba verr s s don or is
vari
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Arth yce
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Dac otry
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Dac tyle
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s dacdeli form
acroacro Arth tyle
spo spo robo lla rho tylocatu is s
Ste
Dud riumrium lla oxy
Las
Mon
la
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sta
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Myc Umbilicm icor ellip auri oiderans a
yea ne sos colo
oca
s
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Cha
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eno Sph
like
Con thec inctnoc m albo rossglabsym
ybe
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Sar
amoiosp oriu is turb atulum
cino
Gra
sav inat
thyroriu m perf
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Cap
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m
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Pha
Pull phia eoma
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Exo ular la derm man ioideae
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occ
Capphiaia prot
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Exoomy
atitidrmis ii
la
eoa
phiacesroni manotro
Hist
nne Nad la exoa pilo sonpha is
Hist opla
Mal llom son jean phia sella ii
opla sma
bran yces iella selmlae
Erem che
sma cap Asc
elegnigr ei
Hist cap sula osp ascua
gyp ansa
Gym Blas opla
sula tum hae s
noa Chrtom sma tum ssp ra albusea
scoi ysosyces cap ssp dubapis s
Trichdeus pori dermsula farc oi
Cten
atitidtum i
ophypetaum parv
Ren omy
ispo ceston losp umis
Coc Ony
rubr orus
ra
serr um
MalbUnc cidio genflavi atus
Malb
ssim
Malb
rancinoc ides a equ
ranc
heaarpu imm inaa
Elap Auxranc hea
hea
albos reesitis
Tala Elaphomarth filamdend lutea
rom homycesron zuffi ritica ii
ento
Tala Talayces ycesmac anumsa
GeoTala rom rombaci leveulatu
The smitromyyces ycesllisp illei s
orus
rmo hia ces eme flavu
Pae ascu
ebur rson s
Bys cilom scylin
crusdros neus ii
Asp soch yces
tacepora
Asp ergil lamy vario
Asp ergil
us
Asp ergil lus s
Asp ergil luslus sparnive tii
zona sus a
ergil
Asp Asp luslus cand tus
cerv idus
Aspergil ergil awa inus
Asp ergillus lus mor
ChaNeoergil lusochr nige ii
etos sartolus clavaceu r
fumi atuss
Asp artor rya gatu
Aspe
ergil ya fisch
AspeFennrgillu lus crem eri s
wen ea
Eme rgilluellia s terre
Aspe
ricel
flavip ustii
rgillu las nidu
Aspe Aspe s nidu lanses
rgillu rgilluvers lans
Euro Euro s
s icolo
Mon tium tiumrestr ustu r
Aspe
ictus s
ascu herb rubru
rgillu
Aspe s s purparior m
Aspe Aspe
aven ureuum
rgillu aceu
rgillu rgillu
Aspe
s soja ss
s paras tama
Aspe rgillu
e
Hem
Aspe rgillu s nom
siticu rii
icarp
Meri Ham entergillu s oryz ius s
Eupe mbla igera les s flavuae
Geo
nicill ingel avellorna s
Peni smith
cilliu ia ium heim aneatus
Eupe
m nam javan ense
nam yslowicum
nicilli Peni
yslow
Chro Peni um cilliu
skii
mocl cillium
crust m skii
Cyph eista
aceufreii
TexoThelo elium nota
mala tumm
spor mma
chite
Calicium maminquinansa
sanc mosu
Porpium
adspti jacobm
Buno Mega Lecididia crustersum
i
lospo ea
doph Xant
fuscoulata
ra sulph
oron horia
atra
Spha Leifidscrob elega
Rhizo
urata
eroph ium iculat
carpo
ns
Squa n orus tener um
geog globo um
marin
Stere
raphi sus
Leca
ocau
a
Clad lonnora lentigcum
onia ramudispe era
Pilop Cladi
rsa
Pseu horusa bellid losum
aggre iflora
deve
Peltig
rnia acicu gata
era Solor clado laris
Nephneop ina croce
niae
romaolyda
Cyan
Gyale arcticctyla a
Conooderm
trema ella cta um
ulmi
Placo populviridu
DiploAnam Trape Trape psis orumla
gelid
schisylops lia lia involu
a
Pertu tes ora placodioide
ta
pulch
sariaocella
Sarci
tus errim s
nomySiphutrachy var a
Cocc ces la thallin al
Aureo odiniu
cerati a
crusta
tes
Dothibasid m
dea ium bartsceus
Phae Dothi
hippopullul chii
oscler dea
ans
phaeo
Botry a dema
inscu s
Botryo ospha
lpta
tioide
Dendsphae eria
Myco Herporyphioria
ribiss
sphae trichia rhodin
psis
Kirsch
a
Herporella
atra
steini trichia
mycodiffus
a
Mono otheli
pappi
junipe
dictys a mariti
Sporo castan
Lophio
mari
Weste
mia
stoma
lignicoeae
rdyke
Cucur Pleoslla crena la
Phaeo bitaria dispertum
sa
Ophio sphae pora rudis
Leptos bolus
berbe
ria nodorridis
phaer
Cucur ia herpo
um
Leptos bitaria
micros trichus
Leptosphaeri elonga
copica
phaer a macul ta
SetospPleospia dolioluans
Pleosp haeriaora betaem
rostrat
AlternAlternora herbar
a
aria aria
um
Clathro
Alterna brassiraphan
cicola i
spora ria alterna
Alterna
PyrenoCochli ria diplosp ta
ora
Pyrenophoraobolusbrassicae
Kirsch Helica phoratritici sativu
repent s
steinio scus trichos
Cucurbthelia kanalo tomais
idothiselatera anus
Geomy
Leptos
pityoph
scus
ces
Bulgarphaeria
pannor
bicolorila
um ia inquina
Geomy
var
Microg ces asperu ns
pannor
la
lossum
Ascoz
um
onus Leotia viride
Theleb woolho lubrica
olus
pensis
Cyttari stercor
Phyllac
a darwin
eus
Neobu Blumertinia guttataii
Amyloc
lgaria ia gramin
arpus premno
Sclerot
enceph philais
inia
Monilinsclerotaloides
iorum
ia fructico
Monilin
Rhytism
ia laxala
a salicinu
Cudoni
Spathu a
m
Lulwort lariaconfusa
flavida
Magnap hia fucicola
Ophioc
Pseudo eras orthe
leptosp grisea
halonec
Ophiost tria orum
falcata
Ophiost oma
oma piceae
Ophiost Pesotum
bicolor
oma
fragrans
penicilla
Ophiost
Sporoth
oma tum
Ophiost
ulmi
omarix schenck
Ophiost stenoce ii
Ophiost
ras
Ophiosto oma oma
ainoae
cucullat
ma europhio
Leucost
um
oma
ides
CryphonEndothiapersoon
Cryphon ectria gyrosaii
ectria cubensi
Cryphon
havanen s
Cryphon ectria
Ascovag ectria
sis
radicalis
inospora parasitic
Camarop
stellipalaa
Chaetoms microspo
ium elatumra
Sordaria
Neurosp fimicola
Podospo ora
crassa
Meliola ra anserina
niesslea
Meliola
na
Kionocha
juddiana
Kionochaeta
Kionocha etaramifera
spissa
eta ivoriensis
Obolarina
Rosellinia dryophila
Xylaria
necatrix
polymorp
Xylaria
Hypoxylo
carpophiha
Verticilliun fragiformela
Glomerell m dahliae
Hypomyce
a cingulata
s chrysospe
Hypocrea rmus
Chaetops
lutea
Nectria ina fulva
Nectria aureofulva
Mycoarac ochroleuc
his inversaa
Spicellum
Geosmith
roseum
ia lavendula
Geosmithi
Hamiltona
a
putterillii
phis styraci
Cordycepio
symb
Paecilomyideus bisporus
Fusarium ces tenuipes
merismoide
Gibberella
Fusarium avenaceas
oxysporum
Nectria
haematoco
Fusarium
cca
Fusarium equiseti
Gibberella cerealis
Fusarium pulicaris
Ceratocysti culmorum
Graphium s fimbriata
penicillioide
Microascus
Halosarphe
s
cirrosus
Aniptodera
ia retorquens
chesapeaken
sis
Nais inornata
Pseudallesc Lignincola
laevis
heria
Pseudallesc ellipsoidea
Lomentospo heria
boydii
ra prolificans
Petriella
Graphium setifera
Graphium tectonae
Helicogloea putredinis
Helicobasidiu
variabilis
m corticioides
Helicobasidium
Helicobasidium
mompa
Rhodosporidiu purpureum
m dacryoidum
Rhodotorula
Erythrobasidiu
lactosa
m hasegawianum
Rhodotorula
Aecidium minuta
Nyssopsora epimedii
Puccinia echinata
suzutake
Gymnoconia
Physopella
nitens
ampelopsidis
Uredinopsis
intermedia
Cronartium
ribicola
Peridermium
Hyalopsoraharknessii
Heterogastridium
polypodii
pycnidioideum
Bensingtonia
intermedia
Leucosporidium
Microbotryum
scottii
Zymoxenogloeaviolaceum
eriophori
Bensingtonia
yamatoana
Sporobolomyces
Sporidiobolus roseus
Rhodosporidiumjohnsonii
fluviale
Rhodotorula
mucilaginosa
Rhodotorula
Rhodotorulagraminis
glutinis
Rhodosporidium
toruloides
Mixia osmundae
Bensingtonia
ciliata
Bensingtonia naganoensis
Sporobolomyces
xanthus
Chionosphaera
apobasidialis
Kurtzmanomyces
nectairei
Bensingtonia
Bensingtonia musae
ingoldii
Agaricostilbum
Sterigmatomyceshyphaenes
halophilus
Mycogloea
Bensingtoniamacrospora
phylladus
Bensingtonia yuccicola
Bensingtonia subrosea
Bensingtonia miscanthi
Kondoa malvinella
Sympodiomycopsis
Camptobasidium paphiopedili
hydrophilum
Graphiola phoenicis
Graphiola cylindrica
Ustilago shiraiana
Ustilago maydis
Ustilago hordei
Tilletiopsis pallescens
Tilletiopsis washingtonensis
Tilletiopsis albescens
Tilletiopsis minor
Tilletiopsis flava
Tilletiopsis fulvescens
Tilletiaria anomala
Tilletia caries
Phaffia rhodozyma
Cystofilobasidium capitatum
Leucosporidium lari marini
Bullera grandispora
Udeniomyces piricola
Udeniomyces puniceus
Udeniomyces megalosporus
Mrakia frigida
Mrakia psychrophilia
Filobasidium floriforme
Holtermannia corniformis
Tremella foliacea
Trichosporon japonicum
Trichosporon cutaneum
Bullera variabilis
Bullera armeniaca
Bullera crocea
Three kingdoms: Animaliae Plantae Mineraliae Y
sag per Constombek poly sylt eilh tum oi
a
ana ia nta naria
nula got ssa s
Sym Ana
stomgra lla cra gan le
Aph osth ofo
logoPro ma adeitta ele nta
inop Atri
lumus
ii
Hap loso aspSag itta oriepha
Act
a
nos
Par
Sag tice car vskalis
sco
yem s alestin um
Pha
Dica acussu kow
inte ntic
yem glo us na atla
Dic ano lossCio ma
Bal cog
oso
Pyr
Sac
XVII century -­‐ Linnaeus -­‐ the systema9cs Gracilaria verrucosa
Gracilaria pacifica
Gracilaria tikvahiae
Gracilaria cornea
Gracilaria chilensis
Melanthalia obtusata
Curdiea flabellata
Gracilaria lemaneiformis
Gracilariophila oryzoides
Schizymenia dubyi
Mastocarpus stellatus
Gigartina crassicaulis
Schottera nicaeensis
Gardneriella tuberifera
Sarcodiotheca
Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii
furcata
Eucheuma denticulata
Eucheuma isiforme
Kappaphycus
alvarezii
Mychodea
Areschougiacarnosa
Endocladia congesta
muricata
Gleiopeltis furcata
Phacelocarpus
peperocarpos
Nizymenia australis
Sphaerococcus
Farlowia mollis coronopifolius
Dilsea carnosa
Dasyphloea
Callophyllis insignis
rangiferina
Bonnemaisonia
hamifera
Ceramium
Ceramium macilentum
rubrum
Dasya baillouviana
Phycodrys
Rhodomelarubens
Anotrichium confervoides
Griffithsia furcellatum
Crouania monilis
attenuata
Hildenbrandia
Apophlaea rubra
Dixoniella lyallii
Rhodella grisea
maculata
Boldia erythrosiphon
Erythrotrichia
Porphyra
carnea
Porphyra pseudolinearis
Porphyra katadae
Porphyra yezoensis
Porphyra tenera
Porphyra leucosticta
Porphyra haitanensis
dentata
Bangia atropurpurea
Porphyra
Porphyra acanthophora
Porphyra suborbiculata
Porphyra miniata
Porphyra umbilicalis
purpurea
Stylonema
Cosmariumalsidii
Sphaerozosmbotrytis
Cosmoclad a granulatum
Gonatozygoium saxonicum
Genicularia n aculeatum
Mesotaeniu spirotaenia
Mougeotia m caldariorum
Spirogyra scalaris
Zygnemopsgrevilleana
Dioscorea is circumcarin
bulbifera
ata
Tacca
plantaginea
Calectasia
Zea mays intermedia
Oryza
sativa
Joinvillea
Sparganium
ascendens
Cyperus
eurycarpum
Glomeropialbostriatu
Anigozan tcairnia s
penduliflora
Eichhorni thos
flavidus
Elasis a crassipes
hirsuta
Tradescan
Costus
tia ohiensis
Marantabarbatus
Calathea bicolor
Zingiber loeseneri
Canna gramineum
indica
Heliconia
Ravenala indica
Orchidan madagas
Phenakostha fimbriatacariensis
Strelitzia permum
Musa
nicolai guyannen
acuminat
Calochor
se
a
Colchicumtus albus
Veitchia autumna
Drymoph sessilifo le
Chamae loeus lia
Trachyca dorea subdistic
seifrizii ha
Cyanella rpus wagneria
Gladiolu capensis
nus
Isophysi s buckerve
Bowiea s tasmanic
Xanthorr volubilis aldii
Asparag hoea
Ledebou us quadran
Chlorop ria falcatus gulata
socialis
Allium hytum
thunber nepalen
Eucharis
se
gii
Burman grandiflo
Apostas nia distichara
Gymno ia stylidioid
Calla siphon
es
palustri suaveol
Vallisne
s
ens
Sagittar ria america
Ananas ia trifolia
na
Scheuc comosu
Gymno hzeria s
Corallor stachys palustri
ancepss
Aplectru hiza
Neottia m macula
hyemale ta
Eburop nidus
Oncidiu hyton avis
austina
Oncidiu m sphace
e
Cypripe m excava latum
Acorus dium
tum
Lilium calamucalceol
Illiciumformosa s
us
Schisa parviflonum
rum
Austrobndra
Nupha aileyachinen
sis
Nupha r japonicscande
Nymph r shimad a
ns
Ambor aea
ai
Arabid ella tuberos
Sinapisopsistrichop a
Cleom alba thalianoda
Pentad e hasleri
a
Resed iplandr ana
Gyrost a alba a brazze
Tropae emon
ana
Moring olum tepperi
majus
Carica a oleifera
Floerke papaya
Batis a
proser papaya
Pilea maritim
Euony cadier a pinaco
ides
Brexia mus ei
alatus
Parna madag
Lepuro ssia
ascare
fimbria
Albizz petalon
ta nsis
Trifoliu ia
Pisum m julibrisspathu
repens sin latum
Glycin sativu
Abobr e max m
Corall a tenuifo
Luffa ocarp
Marahquinqu us lia
Coriar macroefidabaines
ii
Datisc ia
arborecarpa
Datisc a canna
a
Begon a glome bina
Hilleb ia glabra rata
Begon randia
Begon ia
Begon ia metalsandw
Octom ia boisia lica ichen
Tetram elesoxylob na x Begonsis
ia sangu
Cross eles sumaa
Morus osom nudiflo trana
Celtis alba a
ra
Cean yunna califor
Elaea othus nensi nicum
Franc gnus sangu s
Greyi oa
umbe ineus
sonch llata
Zelko a radlko
Fraga va
feriifolia
Spira ria serrat
Photi ea ananaa
Prununia x vanhossa
fraser
Ricin
Adria uss persic i uttei
comm a
Chrys na glabra
Lican obala
unis
Linumia tomennus ta
Goss peren
icaco
Lueh ypium netosa
Bomb ea
Koeb ax seemhirsut
Munt erliniaceiba anniium
Turne ingia spino
Drype ra calab
Malp tes ulmifo urasa
Mirab ighia
roxbulia
Tetra ilis cocci rghii
Mollugonia jalapa gera
Phyto go expan
Spina laccavertic
sa
Plum cia
illata
amer
Polyg bago olera
Cocc onum auriccea icana
Dros oloba
chineulata
Euph era
Citru orbiacapeuvifer nse
Koelr s auran nsis a
Acer euter pulch
Dillen rubru ia tium errim
a
Gunn ia m panic
alata
Mkilu
ulata
Guai a era mani
fragra
Ceph acum
ns cata
Eucr alotu sanc
Cera yphia
s follic tum
Sloa topet lucid
Baue nea alum
ularis
a
Casu ra latifo gumm
Betu arinarubio lia
iferum
Alnu la
ides
Dend s papy equis
glutin rifera etifol
Phor roph
osa
ia
Phor aden thora
Dend aden dron
clava
Arce roph dron
califo ta
Arce utho thora serot
rnicu
Arce utho bium
dom inum
Visc utho bium
verti ingen m
Visc um bium
pend cilliflo sis
Korth um albu
Kort alselartic m oxyc ens rum
edri
Gina hals
ulatu
Noto lloa ellala com m
Noto thixoarno linds plan
Buck thixo s ttiana ayi
ata
leiop
Pyru leya
s suba
Thes laria
distic hyllu
Com ium pube
ureu s
Geo andr impe hoph s
ra
Eubr caul
Exo achioona umbditum ylla
Nes carp
lividuellata
Den troni osn amb m
Dufr drotr a bidw iguu
Antid enoy umb illii
m
San aphnaophe ellula
Osy talum sphavaria
e viscoeroc ns
Opil ris
Can ia lanc albu
Ago sjeraame eolam ideaarpa
Cha nand
ntac
Alep mpe ra lepto eata
Lysia is reia mac stac
Den na flavi manroca hya
Oryc drop
exocda
illanarpa
Tripo tanthemo
arpi
Psitt dant
Stru acan
us n
hus occibico
Gaia than
thus acut denlor
Tupe dend thus
Amy ia
ang ifoliu talis
oers
Dipl ema
anta ron punc
ustif
Glob atia
tedii s
glabrctic
Eria imet furca
tatum olius
Heli nthe
ruma
ula ta
Moq xan mum
Tapi uinie ther
dink
Eng nant lla a dreg lage
Age lerin hus
rubrkirki ei i
Dec lanth
i
Lora aisn a wooquin a
us
quan
Liga
Phth rianthu ina sansdfor
gulu
Sch irus
cuns eurohollr ibardioid s
Sch oep
eifol paeung icuses
Miso oep a pyrif
ia us ii
Sco den fiafia aren
olia
Stro rodo
drumschr aria
Heis
ebe
Xim mbo carp
Ola eniateria sia us brac ri
Min x
con phili bornhyst
Poly quaaph ame cinn ppin eenachy
Pun gala rtiaylla rica a ens sis um
Cer ica
na
is
Tetra cidip granpauguia
Halo
ciflonen
Myr ragicarp hyllu atum ra sis
aea m
Pen ioph
Dud thor s erec
japo
Kala leya umyllum tasm nicu
ta anic
Sed nch
sed exa
m
Cra
Sull ssulum oevisc oidelbes a
rubr daigida
Sax ivan
Sax ifrag a
otint rem s cens
Chr ifrag tia mar
a oregnier um onti
Pelt yso
a intemer anaana
Heu obo sple
ana
tens
Boy che
ykin niumgrifo iana
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Warszawa
18.05.2015
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Currently: Three superkingdoms: Bacteria Ct
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David Hillis and James: www.zo.utexas.edu/faculty/antisense
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!
Warszawa
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Molecular Biology Primer
1953 DNA Structure James Watson (b. 1928), Francis Crick (1916–2004) Maurice Wilkins (1916–2004) Rosalind Franklin (1920–1958) Nobel Price 1963 !
!
!
Introductory Bioinformatics, Fourth Edition. Stefanie Hartmann, Joachim Selbig
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Białka
Rodzaje białek Strukturalne -­‐ tworzące strukturę komórek Enzymy -­‐ prowadzą reakcje chemiczne Białka sygnałowe receptory aktywatory inhibitory Sita molekularne -­‐ białka membranowe Regulatory transkrypcji -­‐ białka wiążące się z DNA
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René Fester Kratz
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http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/nucleus/images/chromatinstructurefigure1.jpg
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From
Epigenetic mechanisms in neurological disease
• Mira Jakovcevski & Schahram Akbarian
Nature Medicine 18, 1194–1204 (2012) doi:10.1038/nm.2828
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Selbig
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Rozwój biologii molekularnej
1949 Protein sequence 1998 -­‐ First mul9cellular organism 1953 DNA structure 1999 -­‐ Human chromosome 1958 Protein crystal structure 2001 -­‐ dras of human genome 1961-­‐1965 Gene9c code 2005 -­‐ Next genera9on sequencing arrives 1972 First gene sequence 2014 -­‐ tens of thousands of individual human genomes sequenced 1976 First genome sequence (RNA bacteriophage) !
1977 First DNA genome sequenced !
1981 -­‐ Mitochondrial genome !
1986 -­‐ Chloropolast genome 1992 -­‐ Yeast chromosome 1995 -­‐ Free living organism 1996 -­‐ First eukario9c organism Warszawa
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