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FULL TEXT - Antropomotoryka
ROZPRAWY I ARTYKUŁY
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DISSERTATIONS AND ARTICLES
NR 31
AN TRO PO MO TO RY KA
2005
WPLYW DOJRZEWANIA PŁCIOWEGO NASTOLATEK
NA ICH ROZWÓJ FIZYCZNY I REGULACJĘ
AUTONOMICZNĄ SERCA
THE INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ADOLESCENT
GIRL’S PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT, BIOLOGICAL
PUBERTY AND HEART RHYTHM REGULATION
DURING THE ADOLESCENCE PERIOD
Algis Kepežėnas**, Gediminas Varoneckas*, Audronis Vilkas**
* prof.dr hab., Institute of Psychophysiology and Rehabilitation, Kaunas University of Medicine
**assoc.prof.dr.,Vilnius pedagogical university, [email protected]
Słowa kluczowe: dojrzewanie płciowe, dojrzałość biologiczna, rytm serca, rozwój
fizyczny
Key words: puberty, biological development, heart rhythm, physical development.
Cel pracy. Celem pracy jest określenie i ocena wpływu dojrzewania płciowego dziewcząt będących w tym
samym wieku kalendarzowym na ich rozwój fizyczny i regulację autonomiczną rytmu serca.
Materiał i metody. U czterdziestu dziewcząt w wieku 13-14 lat określono stopień dojrzałości biologicznej na
podstawie oceny rozwoju drugorzędnych cech płciowych. Dokonano również pomiaru dwóch podstawowych
cech somatycznych, wysokości (cm) i masy ciała (kg). Do oceny rytmu serca stosowano metodę rytmografii,
określając częstotliwość rytmu (RF), dyspersję rytmu (RD) oraz trzy wskaźniki częstości absolutnych fal: bardzo
niskiej (VLFC), niskiej (LFC), wysokiej (HFC), a także znaczenie procentowe tych fal w spoczynku (NVLFC, NHFC,
RFB). Podczas wykonywania próby ortostatycznej rejestrowano maksymalne przyrosty częstotliwości rytmu
w pozycji stojącej RR i znaczenie amplitudy ∆RRB. Reakcję układu krążenia na standartowe obciążenie fizyczne
oceniano w jednostkach testu Ruffiera.
Wyniki badań. Najniższą wysokością i masą ciała odznaczały się dziewczęta będące w pierwszym okresie
dojrzewania płciowego. Starsze biologicznie były wyższe i cięższe. Różnice międzygrupowe w poziomie rozwoju
wysokości ciała nie były jednak znaczące (p > 0,05). Tylko wyższa masa ciała dziewcząt, znajdujących się w
drugim i trzecim okresie dojrzewania płciowego różniła się istotnie statystycznie (p < 0,05) od stwierdzonej u
najmłodszych pod względem dojrzałości biologicznej. Nie wystąpił istotny statystycznie zakres zróżnicowania
poziomu rozwoju ww. cechy somatycznej w grupie badanych wyróżnionych ze względu na najwyższy i średni
poziom rozwoju drugorzędnych cech płciowych. Podobne prawidłowości wystąpiły w rozwoju funkcjonalnym. Można sądzić, że chociaż wiek metrykalny dziewcząt z wszystkich grup był identyczny, to wcześniejsze
dojrzewanie płciowe – odnotowane w grupie trzeciej – powodowało określone zmiany metabolizmu organizmu
i jego aktywację, w wyniku których zaszły ewidentne zmiany somatyczne, w związku z czym, dziewczęta z grupy
o przyspieszonym rozwoju płciowym (3.grupa) były wyższe i cięższe od młodszych biologicznie (grupa 1 i 2).
Wskaźniki rytmu serca rejestrowane w spoczynku i w czasie wykonania próby wysiłkowej obrazują odmienną
tendencję. Wolniejszy rytm i większą jego rozpiętość stwierdzono w grupie dziewcząt o późniejszym dojrzewaniu płciowym (1gr.), natomiast przyśpieszony i bardziej stabilny rytm pracy serca odnotowano u badanych, które były w trzecim stadium rozwoju drugorzędnych cech płciowych. Zasadne jest przypuszczenie, iż
przyspieszony rozwój fizyczny (wskaźników somatycznych) w okresie wcześniejszego dojrzewania nie idzie w
parze z formowaniem się układów funkcjonalnych organizmu. Najczęściej jest ono opóźnione w relacji do poziomu rozwoju cech somatycznych. Przedstawione wyniki badań wskazują, że przyspieszony i bardziej stabilny
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STRESZCZENIE • SUMMARY
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Algis Kepeženas, Gediminas Varoneckas, Audronis Vilkas
rytm serca u dziewcząt charakteryzujących się wcześniejszym dojrzewaniem płciowym (3 gr.) może świadczyć
pośrednio o ich niższej wydolności funkcjonalnej serca i układu naczyniowego w stosunku do grupy dziewcząt
o późniejszym dojrzewaniu płciowym.
Wnioski. Rezultaty badań własnych mogą świadczyć, że u badanych dziewcząt, będących w różnych okresach dojrzewania płciowego, w ich autonomicznym układzie nerwowej regulacji rytmu serca biorą udział w
niejednakowym stopniu parasympatyczne i sympatyczne ośrodki wegetatywnego układu nerwowego. W grupie
dziewcząt o późniejszym okresie dojrzewania płciowego (1 gr.), stosunek udziału ośrodków parasympatycznych
i sympatycznych w przybliżeniu jest jednakowy, natomiast w grupie 2 i szczególnie u dziewcząt będących we
wcześniejszym okresie dojrzewania płciowego (3 gr.), jest wyraźniejsze wahanie intensywności nerwowego
układu sympatycznego na tle zmniejszonej parasympatycznej aktywacji nerwowej .
The aim of the work. The objective is to investigate and to evaluate the impact of the puberty level of sameage adolescent girls (belonging to the age group of 13-14 years) on the level of their physical development and
autonomous control of the heart rhythm.
The material and methods. The research involved 40 participant girls aged 13-14. The level of the girls’ biological
puberty was distinguished according to their puberty stages by estimating changes of secondary sexual features.
Two parameters of physical development were recorded during the research – the height (in cm) and the body
mass (in kg). To estimate heart rhythm characteristics, we used the rhythmography method that included distinction of rhythm frequency (RF), rhythm dispersion (RD), absolute values of very low frequency waves (VLFC), low
frequency waves (LFC) and high frequency waves (HFC) as well as percentage values of the same waves (NVLFC,
NLFC, NHFC) in a lying position at rest. During active orthostatic test, we estimated the maximum increase of
rhythm frequency during stand-up (RRB) as well as the amplitude value (ΔRRB). The response of the heart rhythm
towards standard physical load was estimated using percentile measurement units of the Ruffier Test.
The results. The results indicate that the parameters of both height and body mass were the lowest in the
first puberty stage group. The height parameters differ little, and differences in all the groups investigated are
statistically unreliable (p>0.05). A comparison of the research participants’ body mass parameters indicates that
the girls belonging to the first group, i.e. the first puberty stage, have lower body mass with statistically relevant
results (p<0.05) than those belonging to the second and third puberty stage groups. Those from the third puberty
stage group have the highest body mass parameters, yet they are not different with enough statistical relevance
from the parameters of those belonging to the second group (p>0.05).The results also allow us establishing that
girls belonging to the group of earlier puberty (group 3) overtake those whose puberty is later (groups 1 and 2)
by their physical development parameters, especially, the body mass parameters. It is likely that, despite similar
ages of the girls from all the groups, the puberty of group 3 girls, which began earlier, highly activated their metabolism; therefore, their physical development was faster. Although group 3 girls, whose puberty has started
earlier, are highly ahead of later puberty group girls (groups 1 and 2), we can notice a contrary tendency when
analyzing the heart rhythm parameters obtained while at rest and during functional sampling. An analysis of
heart rhythm dispersion (RD) parameters indicates that the greatest RR interval dispersion is typical of the first
group investigated (SRR=48.15±3.72 ms) and the third group (SRR=38.73±3.03 ms). Yet SRR parameter differences are not statistically relevant (p>0.05).
Conclusions. An analysis of heart rhythm frequency (RF) and rhythm dispersion (RD) parameters show that
the lowest rhythm frequency and the highest dispersion is typical of the first puberty stage girls (group 1) whose
puberty started later. Meanwhile, the highest and most stable heart rhythm is typical of the girls belonging to the
highest puberty stage (group 3). As can be seen from the research results, faster physical development related to
early beginning of puberty leaves behind the development of the basic biological systems; they as if “lag behind”
and develop slower. Our results show that more frequent and more stable heart rhythm typical of the girls whose
puberty starts earlier (group 3) is an indirect manifestation of lower functional capacity of their cardiovascular
system in comparison with those belonging to groups of slower and later puberty.
In the process of child and adolescent physical
education and sports activities, particular attention
should be paid to controlling and estimating physical status of schoolchildren who do and do not
go in for sports, as this later determines their sports
orientation and their ways of trying to achieve high
sport results [1].
Development of functional systems of an adolescent’s body is related to the process of growth and
biological development; it continues until full maturity is achieved [2]. A growing and maturing body
undergoes quantitative, qualitative and differential
integral changes, which involve somatic morphology, functions and motorics [3, 4, 5]. An analysis
of literary sources indicates the significance of the
child, adolescent and youth education problem,
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Introduction
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The Interrelationship Between Adolescent Girl‘s Physical Development Biological Puberty...
especially during the puberty period, when hormonal and psychophysical status of the body is being
formed. The puberty process impacts individual
development and manifests its own peculiarities [6,
7]. Qualitative and Quantitative changes of bodily
functions happening in the said developmental period are related with the peculiarities of autonomic
heart rhythm control during puberty.
Research works devoted to heart rhythm variability in the aspects of sex, physical status of the body
and organism adaptation to physical loads indicate
that estimation of autonomic heart rhythm control
according to heart rhythm variability allows quite
objective judgements on the functional status of the
cardiovascular system and its possibilities to adapt
to physical loads [8, 9, 10, 11, 12]. Nevertheless, the
authors have not found any data in literary sources
on the relationship between the level of autonomic
heart rhythm control and physical capacity, depending on adolescents’ biological development level.
The aforementioned factors are important in optimisation of physical loads during sports exercising in
the puberty period. It is believable that estimation of
cardiovascular system functional status according to
the level of autonomic heart rhythm control and determining adolescent puberty phases will be helpful
in optimising the exercising process and in avoiding
of possible over-exercising.
The aim of the present work is to investigate
and to estimate puberty level of same-age (13–14
year old) girls as well as its impact on physical development level and autonomic control of heart
rhythm.
The experiment involved 40 adolescent girls aged 13
– 14 and selected according to puberty phases. The
research was carried out at Geroji Viltis Secondary
School in Vilnius City.
The girls’ puberty phases were determined using
the method of estimating the level of development
of secondary sexual characteristics [13]. We recorded two parameters of physical development – the
height (cm) and body mass (kg). On the basis of puberty, three groups of the research participants were
distinguished and formed. The first group consisted
of girls whose puberty started late and who were in
the first puberty phase (n=13), the second group included girls having normal puberty and belonging to
the second phase (n=12), and group three consisted
of third-phase (early puberty) girls (n=15).
Results
The parameters of heart rhythm variability while at
rest and heart rhythm reaction to functional tests
typical of research participants of the same age but
belonging to different puberty phases and having
different levels of physical development are presented in Table 1.
An analysis of physical development level parameters indicates that both height and body mass
parameters are the lowest in the group of girls belonging to the first puberty phase. Height parameters
differ to a small extent, and differences among all
the groups researched are not statistically significant
(p > 0.05). A comparison of body mass parameters
among groups shows that group 1 girls (i.e. those belonging to the first puberty phase) have lower body
mass with statistical significance (p < 0.05) than those belonging to the second and third puberty groups.
Third puberty phase girls’ body mass parameters are
the highest, yet their difference from the parameters
typical of group 2 girls is not statistically significant
(p > 0.05).
An overview of physical development parameter analysis allows stating that girls belonging to the
group of faster puberty (group 3) have higher physical development parameters than those belonging
to slower puberty groups (2 and 3), especially in
terms of body mass. It is likely that earlier beginning
of group 3 girls’ puberty activated their metabolism
processes to a greater extent, thus accelerating their
physical development, despite the similar ages of all
the research participants.
Although according to physical development
parameters girls belonging to the faster puberty
group (3) overtake those belonging to later puberty
groups (2 and 3), an analysis of the obtained heart
rhythm parameters recorded while at rest and du-
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Material and research methods
To estimate heart rhythm characteristics, we
used the rhythmography methods related to determination of rhythm frequency (RF), rhythm dispersion (RD) and absolute values of very low frequency
(VLFC), low frequency (LFC) and high frequency
components (HFC) in the heart rhythm spectre as
well as percentile values (NVLFC, NLFC, NHFC)
of the same components in the lying position at rest.
While performing active orthostatic sampling, we
determined maximal increase of heart rhythm during stand-up (RFB) and the amplitude value ( RFB).
Heart rhythm reaction to standard load was estimated using the Roufier test relative measurement
units.
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–
–
p 1:3
p 2:3
–
–
–
<0,05
<0,05
–
–
± 1,95
± 1,70
± 0,13
48,87
±1,37
162,6
±2,03
±0,16
47,42
±1,40
43,23
3
(kg)
Weight
13,67
162,08
±1,78
±0,15
13,58
159,38
2
1
13,54
(cm)
Inch
(years)
Age
p 1:2
3 (n=15)
2 (n=12)
1 (n=13)
partys
Searching
–
<0,025
–
± 16,08
675,8
±17,13
707,2
28,51
761,5
4
(ms)
RF
–
–
–
± 3,03
38,73
±2,16
40,33
±3,72
48,15
5
(ms)
RD
–
–
–
± 1,96
21,47
± 0,95
18,25
±1,39
20,69
6
(ms)
VLFC
–
<0,025
<0,025
± 2,21
18,93
± 1,50
19,33
±3,25
29
7
(ms)
LFC
<0,01
<0,05
–
–
± 4,76
35,53
± 2,33
22,92
±1,94
20,15
9
(%)
NVLFC
–
–
± 2,81
23,8
± 1,32
26,33
±2,44
30,77
8
(ms)
HFC
–
–
<0,01
± 3,93
25,13
± 2,66
24,33
±2,85
35,15
10
(%)
NLFC
–
–
–
± 5,41
39,33
± 3,22
52,75
±3,92
44,69
11
(%)
NHFC
–
<0,01
–
± 9,20
450,13
± 10,48
464
±8,94
490,92
12
(%)
RFB
–
–
–
± 13,33
225,47
± 12,13
243,17
±25,64
271,38
13
(%)
ΔRFB
–
<0,05
–
± 0,90
12,08
± 0,68
11,05
±0,83
9,35
14
(s.vnt.)
IR
Table 1. The data of teenage girls physical development and the variability of hearth rhythm while lying and the reactions of rhythm to functional tests on the first (1gr) second (2gr) and third (3gr)
stages of sexual maturity (Average ± diversion) and the reliability of the difference (p).
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Algis Kepeženas, Gediminas Varoneckas, Audronis Vilkas
ring functional tests indicates contrary tendencies.
After having performed a comparison between heart rhythm frequency parameters of all the three
groups in a horizontal position while at rest we see
that the lowest heart rhythm frequencies are typical
of slowest puberty group girls (group 1), i.e. the longest average RF intervals (RF = 761.54 ± 28.51 ms)
are typical of group 1, while the highest heart rhythm
frequency is observed in the fastest puberty group
(group 3), where average RF intervals are the shortest (RF = 675.80 ± 16.08 ms) and differ from group 1 results with statistical significance (p < 0.025).
The RF parameters obtained in the second group of
research participants in a horizontal position while
at rest are in between those of group 1 and group 3,
yet there is no statistical significance (p > 0.05).
An analysis of heart rhythm dispersion (RD) parameters indicates that the highest RF interval inequality is noticeable in the first group of research
participants (RD = 48.15 ± 3.72 ms). Meanwhile,
the third group results are (RD = 38.73 ± 3.03 ms).
Yet RD parameter differences among all the groups
analysed are not statistically significant (p > 0.05).
An overview of heart rhythm frequency (RF) and
rhythm dispersion (RD) analysis results indicates that
the lowest rhythm frequency and the highest rhythm
dispersion are typical of the slowest puberty group
of the participating girls (group 1), while the most
frequent and stable rhythm is observed in the group of the fastest puberty (phase 3). We can notice
that faster physical development during early puberty leaves behind the development of the main
functional systems of the body, and they as if “lag
behind” and develop slower. As can be seen from
our experimental results, more stable and more frequent heart rhythm of faster puberty (group 3) girls
indirectly reflects lower functional capacity of their
cardiovascular systems in comparison with those
whose puberty is slower.
A spectral analysis of heart rhythm indicates
that absolute values (in ms) of very low frequency
components (VLFC) differ little among the research participant groups (p > 0.05). Faster puberty
group of girls (group 3) has VLFC parameter values higher than those obtained in other groups
(VLFC = 21.47 ± 1.96 ms). Meanwhile, the lowest
values of the aforementioned parameters are observed in group 2 (VLFC = 18.25±0.95 ms). A comparison of percentile slowest period wave parameters
shows that this component takes the greatest percentile part in the heart rhythm spectre in the early puberty group of girls, i.e. group 3 (NVLFC = 35.53 ± 4.76
%), while it is the lowest in the late puberty group,
i.e. group 1 (NVLFC = 20.15 ± 1.94%). The NVLFC
percentile parameter of group 3 girls is higher with
statistical significance than those obtained in groups
2 (p < 0.05) and 1 (p < 0.01).
Meanwhile, absolute values of the low frequency component (LFC) reflect a contrary situation.
The parameter of the waves belonging to this period has the highest value in the late puberty group,
i.e. group 1 (LFC = 29.00 ± 3.25 ms). At the same
time, it manifests the lowest values in group 3 – the
early puberty group (LFC = 18.93 ± 2.21 ms). We
should stress that the LFC parameter value obtained in group 1 is lower with statistical significance
(p < 0.025) than the LFC values obtained in groups
2 and 3. The percentile part of waves belonging
to this period (NVLFC) also has the highest values
in group 1, i.e. the group of the slowest puberty
(NLFC = 35.15 ± 2.85%), while it is much lower in
groups 2 and 3, although it only differs with statistical significance from that obtained in group 2
(p < 0.01). High frequency component values, both
absolute and percentile, manifest no statistically significant differences among the research participant
groups (p > 0.05).
An overview of the differences in both absolute
and percentile parameters of the power spectrum
among the groups of girls belonging to different puberty phases during the all periods allows stating that
the parasympathetic and sympathetic control have
different impact on the heart rhythm. Parasympathetic and sympathetic sections of the autonomic
nervous system have approximately equal influence on heart rhythm control in slowest puberty girls
(group 1), dominance of the sympathetic control
was observed in the group 2 and especially group 3
containing the girls whose puberty is the fastest.
Functional test parameters, i.e. those recorded
during active orthostatic test and during the Roufier
test are the best in group 1 – the slow puberty group
(RFB=490.92±8.94 ms; ΔRFB=271.38±25.64 ms;
IR=9.35±0.83 s per unit). Meanwhile, they are the
worst in group 3, i.e. the group of faster puberty
(RFB=450.13±9.20 ms; ΔRFB=225.47±13.33 ms;
IR=12.08±0.90 s per unit). Statistically significant
RFB differences can only be noticed when comparing groups 1 and 3 (p<0.01). ΔRFB parameter differences among the groups are lower and have no statistical significance (p>0.05), while IR parameters,
as well as ΔRFB parameters, only differ with statistical
significance when comparing groups 1 and 3.
Conclusions
1. The lowest heart rhythm frequency and mostly
expressed hearth rhythm responses to orthosta-
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The Interrelationship Between Adolescent Girl‘s Physical Development Biological Puberty...
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Algis Kepeženas, Gediminas Varoneckas, Audronis Vilkas
tic test and standard physical load as well as the
best Rouffier Index was observed in girls with
later sexual puberty.
2. In the process of junior sportsmen selection and
training, it is mandatory to establish their level
of puberty according to the stages of their sexual
maturity. Such distinction would be helpful in
avoiding inadequate impact of physical loads on
adolescents’ organisms.
3. In physical exercising training process the distribution of equal calendar age adolescents into
the groups on the basis of their factual biological
age is recommended.
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