Annual Report 2002

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Annual Report 2002
SPACE RESEARCH CENTRE
POLISHACADEMYOF SCIENCES
INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL REPORT
2002
WARSAW
.--
l
l
SUMMARY2OO2
In the yexr 2002 rhc Space ]tesearch Cenrre (SRC) of the polish
(PAS)cerriealout pure anclepplied srLtclies
AcxdeInyof Sciences
in
spxce physics, geoclesicrn(l physicul resexrch ol plancts :lod thc
Ear!h,in l)rord internationelco-oper^tion.'lhc InstitLrte
rssisledin
the prepxation :lncl rutificition of the ne\\, Agreentcnr belween
l)olunclxncl the ELtr.)peanSpaceAgcncy, it xlso supportcd lhe work
SPACE RESEARCH
CENTRE
o[ the Inlerministerj:rl Consu]rrtivc croup for Space ro rlte prime Of tlfe POliSh ACademy
l\'linisrerrnd of the Polish Space Office. The docroral sruclies wer€
Of SCienCeS
inilirtecl in dre Centre in co operarion wrrh rhc In\rirlrriJ (,f
establiShed
in 1976
, l r o l ' l r \ s i ( \ I ' n 5 , \ \ j r l r r L f s r l ) . , l c ( , i I . l c r n ( l i ' l r r c sf l r n l r r n n o r c
fecognizing thc technoLogicxl xn(l economic impollilnce of space
xctivities to rnocletn society, the SI{C was involvecl in :l rxnqe of
r . l r r , , r r r u n . r, l( t r n n \ . l r \ ( l l l i i n r l l L . p r l r n t o l i o ,n, ! s f . l ( . ( r c i e n . r .
r\prd from 92 prpers publishccl in jntcrnilion:ll rcferee(l science
journ:!ls,ncw cleviccs,innovxtive methoclsancl soflwafe-packlges
delivefc(lt() rlte mirker, rhe highlightsof Sllc,s rcrivi!y in 2002
. Tl)e INTEGR.A.L
Projecr- on 17O(ober 2002rhc Europeln Specc
Agencvs satelliteINTEGII"{L(lnlernationrl Gxmn]]eRayLlborarory)
w:ls place(l in orbit. On its boxrcl grmma rxy lelerjcope IBiS v,,is
cquipedwidr SRC- builr Velo ElectronicBox (8,5kg weighrxnd c.
J()W po\\'ef coltsluDprion) s4teres lhe X ley monjtor JEM-X wirl)
Slic-desi!:nedsoft\\,!lrepacket. The SIIC also providecl control encl
cuiil)fition equipments fbr JEM X device ancl for rhe Spl
specUonretef.(P. Orlc.ltiski, . Mot-Iu)ski.G..nlcb ikaushi)
. 1hc ROSETTAProject xrrxngementswerc finalized for :l hLrnch
of ROSET'IA the llufopcen Sp:lcc Agency's p.obe intencle(l to
rxpknc !lle c()lne!. -fhe SltC providccl the cquipnrent tnounteclon
the probc lxnder. lt consistedof the self hafinrerjngdevice thxt
\\'ould insen thc penetmtor into the comefs nLlcleus,thenr.ll
sensorsxn(l dcnsitonteterof the penetr.[or,
()1[ Ba]]taszkietuicz, J. Gtlgotczule. W. Mcrczeaski)
. The CORONAS-FProiect - ol)sen/ationsof sol.rr X ray spectftt
(.trouncl6 GII of scicntiflc dete) rvere performed, xnd recorclecl
Lrsinilthe SRC-buiLtRESIK specoonleler functbning aboxrcl
COIIONAS-F
satellile(lxunchedon 31 July 2001).The itnalysisof
{lle tirst !\,o ol)sen,ation series enxblecl for the first time the
identilicirtion
ol-entissionlines of polassiuntind of arflon - the
clementsthlt luve significxnllycliffcrentfirst ionizxtionpotentitls.
(.1.S)l )aster)
The year 2002 mrrkccl the fifst srep in dte developnrent of tbc
h cllccl Il C.tplt1l Repoftillg of the Spxce ResearchCentre. In
conlpllfison \\,i(ll tfiiclitionxl Annuil lleports new voc^bulary wrs
introcllrcecl
itncl lhe hyour $,as scljusredto the cLrnentedition. The
sunrnl n,trl)le aclclcclon p.rge 4 makes compx,-isonbetrveen data
fbf 2002.lnd 2001 possible.Ntorechxngeswill be inrroduced in rhe
luturc :rccorcling Io lclvanccs in tbc Intellectual Caplt.l Report
schemeof the ELxopern scientific comlnunity.
Promotes
Polish participation
in international
space missions
Combines
scientific research
with engineering
rnnovattons
Links
spaceresearcl)
with applications
in Poland
Inspired by
science and national
market demand for
space recnnology
Intellectual
Report 2OO2 in Figures
capital
IIuInan
20o2
20l)1
Indicators
capltal
r29
Number of stalT(tull-time equivalent)
Number ofpermanent sci€ntific staff
of whom aged <3 I
of whom aged 3 I -4O
ofwhom aged 4l-5O
of whom aged 5 I -60
ofwhom aged >60
Number of female scientific stafT
Ratio of pemanent to tempoEry contracts
43
3
t2
t4
lo
l3
2
Awards and honours
Participation in editorial boards
organizers of sessions and conferences
Sci€ntists sefling as olTicers ofintemational
scientific organizations
Structuaal
I
I
I
I
3
6
2
5
5
5
lo
lo
capitrl
Funding Sttucture:
basic auocation (%)
srgnts (%)
thi.d party contEcts (7o)
other sources (%o)
covemment funded ressarch as 70 oftotal
Books in the libGry
Subscriptions to joumals
Computer seflers
PCs
Establishing
t24
43
2
5
tl
l5
10
t3
45,2
lo,3
ibcome
44,4
14195
122
13
150
46.O
30,3
t5,2
8,5
t4345
t17
l5
160
Networks
'National indusrial and research partners
National educational partners
Is tern a I i o. a I pe rsoh n e I acha nge :
visits fi.om abroad
Trips abroad
Intemational co-operation aEreements
oraanized conferences
6
r25
2tQ
33
3
lf,
6
39
t93
22
I
Key processes
Space projects involved
Intemational organizations' programmes
Intemational arants (including EU prcjects)
Third party contracts
Transfer of Knowledge
Papers at scientific conferences
T.aining courses for professionals
Payloads launched into space
New devices delivered to partn€rs
New devices dd software-packages
Innovative frethods delivered
Press, TV and radio dessages
8(3)
34
t2
a7G7)
92(67)
ll
6
& Technology
Publications in intemational refereed scientific joumals
(includinA thejoumals from the SCI list)
Othe. publications
Ph. D. theses superyisions
Master theses superyisions
Academic lectures (semestral)
Public talks and lectures
9
1
9(4\
33
24
deliveted
55
40
92
2
43
43
175
I
2
2
7
ll
3
5
l3
9
8
25
3
300
to market
E
I
270
KNOWLEDGE
CAPITAL
Human Capital
At tbc end of 2002, thcSPACE
RESEARCHCENTRE stalf consistedof
107.litlt-titneand 24 part-time emplqlees.
The scientificstaffconsistsof 25 seniorscF
Applications
entists (14 professorsand 11 habilihted observes). The Design ancl (including
14 designels
2
Branch
enploys
doctors)and 22 researcherswith a doctor
with a doctor cLegree)ancl 11 persons of
degree, of whom 18 are employed as resupport. The administration, staff
searclrrssociates.
They lre 'upportetl hy technical
printing
unit, rhe library, ISO support
I7 speciJlisls(pllysicisri'.mlllrcmalici.rns.
persons.
programmers,geodesists{nd branch employ 40
Nstronomers,
,
t
i
I
g
.p
I
!
. e
9
x,t
!
E i= =
[fl" "lll'-:
P.oorotions
€
llelgl5:f
!
e
6 i
-0 t
E
C
i
9'E
F i
E:
7 q
n : s E ! ; ;
€
-
r07 Inrrt-timc.-pr"v..'- z*I
wards and honours
. JANUSZ SYL\(/ESTER
. JOTANTA NASTULA
was granled rhe honorary medal of the
was awarded with habilitated doctor de
physical
in
sciences
by
the
Scientific
CosnronruticsFederafionof RussilI'
liree
Council of the Institute of Geophysics . ANNA SI,)YIA,TEK
PAS.
receiveclURSI Young Scientist Award;
MAREK BANASZKIE\(4C2,ZBIGNIE\(/ lar Physics Meeting, held in Prague,
KI,OS,MIROSLA\yRATAJ
CzechRepublic,9 September.
receivedthe Award of the PAS for pro- .
ANDRZEJ\f. \TTRNIK
morng spacesctence.
wasa co-convenorof the Session'Analysismethodsfor plasmawavesand turbulence' during the )C<VIfth General As,
sembly of URSI,held in Maasrrichr,rhe
Netherlands,17-26Augusr.
. JANUSZB- ZIELINSKI
SRCScientistsseNing as editors, co-edwas a Convenor of lhe 'lntegratedSysirors and editorial board members of
tems Including GPS'Sessionof tire Inrescjentific journals:
graled.Sprce
Systems
Syrnpo\rum
during
. ALEKSANDER
BRZEZII{SKI
tl)eJ4"'COSPAR
Congress.
heldin Hous
member of the Editorial Board of the
ton, USA,10-19Odober.
Artirtci.ll Satellites
. JANUSZB. ZIELINSKI
. JAN KAZIMIERZLATKA
was an organizerof the Seminarentitled
'The Studiesof Ionosphereand Its Influ
memberof the EditorialBoard of tne
At'tificia I Satelli les
ence on GPS MeasurcmentsResults',
. WOJCIECHPACHELSKI
held in Varsaw, Pol^nd, 5 July.
editor in chief of the Ani.ficial Satellites,
member of the Editorial Boarcl of
Geadezjai Karlografra;
\
Uome of SRC scientists are |nelnANDRZEJ\7. \fiERNIK
ilssociateeditor of the American Ceo- bers of the following international
physical Union jottn l Radio Sciencc,
science organizations:
member of the Editorial Board of rhe
Acta Geopblsica Polonica.
Commiftee on SpaceResearch(COSPAR)
KITZYSZTOF
ZIOLKO\fSKI
scientificconsultantof the Polish edition International Astrooomical Union
of rc National Gcograpbic
European Astronomical Society
European ceophysical Society
t
\/
t
rganizers of sessions and conferences
. JAN BTDCKI
Intemational Association of Ceomagnetism and Aeronomy
. Intemational Association of Geodesy
. I'Union Radio,Scientifique Intern:rtionale
AmericanGeopltysicalUnion
was a member of the Scientific Committee of the COSPAR Colloquium "Plasma ' PlanetarySociety
Processes in the _Near-Earth-Sp1cg .
Joint organizarion for solar observaInterballand Beyond",held in Sofia,Bul
ii rn..
garia,5-10Feb.uary.
European Physjcs Sociery
. RYSZARDCABRYSZE'\rSKI
was an organizerof the Seminaron Ce- . European Astronomical Union
lestixl Mechanics,held in Varsaw, Poland,3-4June.
. JANUSZSYL\flESTER
was a Convenorof the JOSOInstrumentai Sessionduring the 10rnEuropeanSo-
on Geodetic Effectson Non-Tidal Oceanic Processes;
STANISLAIOf
CRZEDZIELSKI
memberof the InternationalAcademyof
L-rome of the SRC scientists are
membefs
ofi
.
The scientificcouncilsof:
SpaceResearchCentrePAS,
Nicholas Copemicus Astronomical
.
CentrePAS,
Institute of Geophysics(a SRCscientist
servesas a vice chairman),
Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser
Microsynthesis
Instituteof Geodesyand Canography,
Planetariumand AstronomicalObserva- .
tory io Olsztyn,
The scientific committeesof the Polish
Academyof Sciencesi
Astronomy,Spaceand SatelliteResearch
(SRC scientistsserve as vice-chainnan
rnd secretary),
PolarResearch,
Ceodesy.
Geophysics,
national committeesol COSPAR,URSI,
CODATA;
.
NationalCouncil of Geodesy,
Main Committee of the Astronomical
Competitionfor Schoolchildren.
InterministerialConsultativeGroup for
Spaceto Prime Minister of the Republic .
of Poland(the director of SRCchairsthe
Group).
.
\rRC Scientists serving as elected
officers of international scientific
organizations:
MAREKBANASZKIE'\flCZ
memberof the ScientificBoardof the In-
temationalSpaceScienceInstitute(ISSD,
Bern, Switzerland;
ALEKSANDER
BRZEZINSKI
memberof the OrganisingCommitteeof
IAU Commission 19 (Earth Rotation),
CorrespondingMember of the International Earth RotationService,a member
of the IAG/IAPSOJoint Vorking Group
ZBIGNIEWKTOS
representativeof Inte.nationalUnion of
RadioScience(URSI)to COSPAR;
BARBARAKOLACZEK
honorary member of the International
Associationof Geodesy,member of the
DirectorialBureauof IAU representarive
to the InternationalEarth Rotation Service (IERS);
I!/ONA STANISTJ.'WSKA
memberof the COST271 (IITS)Management Committee and chairman of
\forking Group 1 COST271,memberof
the COSPAR/URSIVorkiog croup on
the lnternationalReferenceIonosphere,
member of the lvorking Group 'Ionosphere' of the IntemationalSpaceEnvironment service;
JANUSZSYL\flESTER
memberof the Councilof SolarPhysics
Sectionofthe EuropeanPhysicalSociety,
the Secretaryof Joiot Organisationfor
SolarObseryation0OSO);
ANDRZEJ\7. IOTERNIK
vice-presidentof the InternationalUnion
of RadioScience(URSI);
JANUSZB. ZIELINSKI
memberofthe COSPAR
Bureau,member
of the AstrodynamicsCornmitteeof the
InternationalAstronauticalFederation.
. RYSZARDZDUNEK
member of the COST 40 (EOSS)
MenagementCommittee.
Structural Capital
Funding Structure
The scientificand technicalactivity of the SpaceResearchCentre I,AS was funded in
2002in 76%0by rhe SrareCommirreefor ScientificResearchand ir, 24"2 fto]n't other
sources.
Infrastructure
TT
I he Space Research Centre's facilities are distributed in three loca-
tions:
. In \yy'alsaw,at Bartycka 18A Street 52i5mr (facilities);
. In Vroclaw (Solar Physics Division),
Kopernjka 11 Srreer at the Astronomical
Observatoryof the Wroclew Universily600m' (facilities);
. In
Borowiec
nexr
Pozn i
(Astrogeodynanrical ObservalorJ)
1003m' (facilities).
Completionof in the year 2000the Warsaw
anclWroclaw fxcilities brought ne$/ space
xnd capabiliries for research ancl
technologyxctivities.
TI
I-:ibrary and information
I . The basicportionof the insrirutelibrary
-
I
I
--
is locatedin the main faciliriesin Varsaw
and its xuxiliary departmentsin the Solar
--1r"
PhysicsDivision in \Troclaw and in the
AstrogeoLlynlmical Ohscrvatory in
Borowiec.
At the end of 2002,the library had 14345
books and subscribedto 66 international
and 51 Polish scientificjournals.The library catalogues in Warsaw xncl
Borowiec are computerisedand are itc
cessibleon line in the computer system
of the institure.
Accesslo databases,specificationsand
formal requirementssetsof ESAwas ex
tended.
anended by many distinguished guests
including the representatives
of the Polish
Academyof Sciences,academicinstitutions
and local authorities.
The SpaceResearchCentrehasan efficient
and well-equipped printing shop able to
fully coverprinting and publishingneedsof
the instituteand to generatesome income
from extemal orders.
P**.ooo
Tn.
"o-n ra."network
The institute'scomputer network is connected to the Intemet. It is based on 3
workstation servers and 11 workgroup
servers;about 160 PC computersare coonectedas client workstations.The network
is basedon the TCPIIPprotocol;the servets
are running HP-[IX, Solarisand Linux operating systemsand the workgroup servers Aslrogeodynamical
Observatoryof Space
and client workstationsare Microsoft winCentre
in Borowiec
Reseaach
dows, HP-IJX,Solaris,DOS, and Linux systems.Remoteaccessto the systemis available by modem connection (48-22) The Observatory in Borowiec was founded
651-71-63or by the TPSA service (0-20 in 7952 as a part of the Depanment of
2122).'fhe following services are sup- Astronomy of the Polish Academy of
ponedi telnet,FTP,1Vw'\(/.The library cata- Sciences, under the name of the
logue systemis accessibleby modem con- Astronomical Latitude Station in order to
nection.The SRChomepageURL For \veb work on determinalionof the polar motion,
surfersis_h!!pr?h8r{4bk !y4y,p!
time corection and maintenanceof the
time standard I-ITC. These tasks were
realised in co-opemtion with the Bureau
Intemational de l'Heure (BIH) and with
rnd
help of rwo visualzenirhtelescopes.
two tmnsit instrumentsand quanz clocks
constructed in Borowiec. Gravimetric
were
conducted
measuremenE
periodjcally. In the mid sixties the
Observatory,was incorpomtedas a part of
the Institrte of Geophysicsof the Polish
AcademyofSciences,and in 1972its name
was changed into Astronomical Latitude
Observarory.In 1964 the staff of the
Fiftv vears of the
Observatory in co-operation with the
Astrogeodynarnical
Astronomicxl observatory of the Adam
Observatory in Borowiec Mjckiewicz University in Poznad started
observationsof the anificial Earthsatellites,
at first with a simple photographiccamera
On the 6'h of December in Borowiec the PO-1,then its imProvedversionPO-3,later
ceremonies of the 50'hanniversaryof this replaced by a high qualiry SBG camera
research outpost were inaugunted and made by c. ZeissJena. In 1976 the laser
l0
measurements
of distancesto the satellites with the help of the laser system and GpS
were \latted by a satellirrlaser rrnging method. allowed lhe Ohservalory in
systemof rhe Intercosmostype.
Borowiec to continue the co-operation
with
the
International
Earth
Rotation
ln 1977rhe Observatorytogetherwith the Seryice (IERS) on determination of the
Department of Planetary Geodesy was Eaffh rotation. Simultaneously the time
includedinto the SpaceResearchCentreof iervice wxs equipped qirh the caesium
the PolishAcademyofSciences,foundedin frequency srandard OSCILLOeUARTZ
the sameyear. Till 1983the measuremenrsEUDICS 3020. Connecred ro rhe LOMN-C
were carried out wirh the help of the receiver constructed at the Observatory
lntercosmos laser ranging with the and dren to the CPS time receivers tr
accuracyof 70 cm. Startingfrom 1982the ensuredthe time recordingaccuracyof the
classical measurements of the Earth order of 10 ns. The tim-e servrce ar rne
rotation were continued with rhe use of Observatory is currently engaged in
Danjon astrolab which replaced the creationof the atomic rime scaleTAI and
outclated transit instruments and visual UTC in the co_operationwith the Bureau
zenilhtelescopes.
From 1983the sarellirelnternJrion3l
despoidset Mesures(tstpM).
measurementswere performed by the Also in the nineties the sravrmerlc
Doppler technique using own DOG-2 measurementswere resumed.5ince t9g3
receivers.The time base was modernized the works on VLBI and satellite
by the introduction of the cesium inte.ferometry,:rnd since 1992 the works
frequency standard Rhode & Schwarz on the DGPS,clererminationof position of
(1980)and connectionto the international moving objects (planes, cars,
sitips) have
time system by means of the relevision been continued. In 1995 the name of the
method,which ensuredthe time accuracy Observatorywas changeclto the Borowiec
below 1 microsecond and allowed the AstrogeodynamicObservatorv
accessof the Borowiec Observatory to
crention of the international atomic time
scaleTAI.
In 1988regular tneasurementsbegan with
the use of the second generationsatellite
hser mnging systen designed and
constructed in co-opemtion with the
Astrcnomical Observatory of the Adam
MickiewiczUniversityin Poznan.In 1991a
third generationlaser CONTINUUMpy-62
s/as installed, which improved the
accuracy (of the measurementsof the
clislances
to satellites)to 1 cm. In the same
year the Doppler observations were Participantsjn rhe 50IhAnniversxryMeering
ebandoned and, insread, the Global
Positioning System (GPS) obseryarionsThe scientific achievementsof those 50
startecl.Since 1994, when a cPS TURBO yearswere appreciatedby the guestsofthe
ROGUESNR-8000receiver was installed. meeting, who congratulatedthe staff and
the observatoryhasbeen includedinto the wished more successes
in dre future.
nerwork of the International GpS Service
for Geodynamics(IGS).
The treasurenrens,
I
Establishing
of Networks
llost scicnce and technolog) actiuiry oftbe
SPACERESEARCHCEN.RE is catf ied out
i broacl illtetnational co-opcratioll
trilhir thefranetuol'k of programs oJ th,:z
llutopc.!, SpaceAgotc.y cttttl rtf otber
ilie DMtiai1l otg.tl|isatiol$ as Qell cts x1
ill!lio)ts
.laittt pt ojccts uith L'.Diottsscictllific ittst
SRCSPace Proiects:
Gcoclctiol Applic.rtion lbr GL()l)41xnd Re- I
gionxl Sludy of dre S()licl Exnh l)yn:Ilics
(WENEGER),
IiSA Ptaiccls:
. Cr\SSINIstu(licsofthe Satrrur
systemenclo[ . EU1IOLAS
ConsofiLrr]r,
Titln;
its nloon
. L r r r u n , . r5n\ : L ( \ ' ( 1 s r n n ( r f S E A S - R I l
. IN I'DCRAI-- high-encrgy xstrcPh) sics orl)itxL
.rtl
. IIOSE'ITA - a probc end l.rnclcr to crPbrc'
f
l
\
l
(lonreti
seminar on
tt orsl-(fer-an
\lAlts EXPIIDSS- Nlirs exploritlic)l];
co-oPeration in sPace
IIEIISCItRL - obscrvlllions of stxrs,
nlcdiumi
:rncl
intcrsicllxr
nebulac
- sludying how the solir wind NlCLLISTER
on the 19'r'of Novenll)er 2002 the scientists
fects thc ExItIl;
ftom SPllceRescxfch Centfe,
I?|tssidl,nSP.tcc AgencY Piolccts:
. COIIONAS-F co-oPerrttion in solar rcseerclT;
. INTET{BAI,I-- sluclies of Eardl s nlrlgnct()
. OBS'rANOVKA
rulcn! of ISS.
stuclieson thc Russiin sc!]-
CNESltoiccts:
. DFNIEIEII - siuclicsof clectromegncticsill
nxls in lhe i()nosPherc-
SRCirt EutoPean Ur,ion Proiects:
llTN_ - Trlrbulent llounclxry Liyefs in
(;cospllce I)hs!111lsi
. EGNOS - Llosling of a llxn!{ing xnd Inlcgrily
Ihniloring Slaii()n(RI\IS);
. RIN Eurcpc;rn Scc LcveLObseNing Syslcnr;
. COST 271 thc r(nx)sPhcre s cffcct on coll-
.
SRC iI i len olioral
tior, Pt'ojects:
sciet7c? oreaniza-
ancl engineers
I)cutsches Zentrlrm fur Luft- und Rxumf:rhrt
(DLR):rs well :ts scvenl other Polish:rncl
Gcrmxn il'lstitutions lnct in thc Prelrises of
thc Scic[tiflc Ccntre of thc PAS in Bcflin.
Thc rl]xin pLrfposc ()f lhc gathcrirlg, llPxfi
frorlr cclebrxting thc 50"' ennivcrseq' of thc
PolisllAc!dcmy of Scienccs,wxs Io identily
rrnclcrplorc xrcxs of Possil)le co ()Perxtioll
between lblish lnd Ger-nlan institLlti()ns
involvecl in sp:rcc Lesc'archrncl in sPllce
lechnologys develoPment.
'fhe
oPironrnitles offcrecl by the 6'r'
FrNDcwork Progranme of fie EU 1nd thc
EuropeiLn Space Allcncy's progmmmes
rvere cliscusseclxn(l some definite xfe:ls of
co-opefetionwcfe proposed,includinll:
. rcnrotc scnsing invcslilalltionoF Phnculy
srrrf:rccerul elrnosPhere
. in-situ investigrltionof phnctary surfece
scicnccs
. in\,c'r'sc
nlcthoclsin Plalnct:Iry
. r'cnrole
sensingrr,clfbrcstry
. rcmotesa'nsinilrnd \\'etlxn.ls
. h) pcfspectnl rcnx)lc scnslng
. Inlcrniltk)nrl SPalcc Environnlcntlll Scf
IAC;A, tjttsl. COSPAR,
|ice
rr(,
Scnice (lCS) . t ) r e r i - i L ' n . r g r r ( u l l Lar
. Intcrrrxtk)nirl
CI)SCcocl)nxnrics
ll
I.
contribLrtions ro scientific souncl floodfisk essessmentand manallement of lxrlac
. l:lscI obselvalions and dxta xnxlysis oF
Gefotan siLtellires cFZ1, CH.{MP and
GiL{CE
. GALILEO clevelopment an(l implemenrxtion
. GOCE Projcc! prepafitk)n
. Donilodng of Cco-plasrnl environotenr
Co-oper:rtiondiscussbn
One of the most pron)ising ancl welconted
concepts lvas tlte establishlrent of the
lloljsh-Getnan
spllce
Instlutuents
lncul)ltor,rvhich coulclIcadto a substantirl
rccluction()f risks, costs ancl clevelopment,s
trme of innov:ltive instruments. At the
:r.,olnn.rnying srrn.l
rlrt. i(:rnin.rr\
pxrticipants could see soDte instrurnenrs
consttucted so f:u in dre SRC.
tr ..... -.
IJxhibition
aaTlrc World Space
Congress 2002, Houston
The srend "Space in l,oland,, prcsenred
Polislt involvement in wolid-class space
prol.ltemmes.The messagewas focused on
the ability to build space instmmentation,
Ilight rncl ground softrvare ancl gror.rnd
support equipnlent at contpetitive price,
rul)ility.basedon the experience g"the.ed
urough
participation in
renowned
intemationallnissions.
T l r e r x l l i l r i t ( d i n j ' r r u o t r n t i t i o np r . s e n l r , l
Polish pxfliciparion in ESA's missions
inclucjecl:
pointinli systentfor Il.l spectrophotometer
for MAIiS EXI,RESS
control and supply unit of VETO system
ofthe IBIS
ofthe
IBIS relesc()pe
relesc()peonboerd
onboerd INTEaRAL
INTEaRAL
- the
the dentonstlabr
dentonstlabr of hamlnedng
hamlnedng devlce
device
tanoeL,
Eil
ll
(based on formal agreements)r 22 organizations
EAypt - 1
I
]
I
]
I
]
I
]
I
tor MUPUS experimenr on ROSETTA I
l)olish Exposition
Bilateral cooperation
I
from 15 countries
Inte.national personnel exchange
Belgiunr
Bulgaria
CzechRepublic
ESvpt
Finland
Fr,rnce
Germany
Greece
Italy
Lithuania
Netherlands
Portugal
Romania
Russia
Spain
Sweden
Swilzedand
Turkey
UK
Uknine
USA
E
Visfis from abrond - 39
I
Tdpsxbrord 193
I(EY
PROCESSES
drjr"*
(*
SPACEPROJTECT
Interball
me INIERBAU-1 mission uitb tbe
MAGION 4 subsatellite uas l.tuncbed in
A gttst 1995 afid tbe mission
INTERBALL2 uttb MAGION 5 uas lifted in
Augusl 1996. Tbeirgo.1lis to inuestigate
dlnalnical processesin tbepolar, aurora.l,
and tail region ol the terrestrial
magnetospbere
as uell as on its boundary.
Among tnanJ)expeimentso-fsimultal.rcous
measutementsof cbatged particles and
plctsm.t turbulence tbere uere SRc-deuelopedinstrulnents . As uell thefirst misslon bas
plasma eaws' tpectrofieteB (ASPI) and he otbet otxecafties tbe POLMD analJ)serfor
measurenents oJltbe auroral bilometric racliation (AKR) oftbe Eafib, an.l tbe KRF
collimator ubicb ispart of an X-raj pbotometer.
analysis enables studies of the spatial
structurewith highest resolution.Figures
below show the wavelet spectra of the
wave form of the magnetic and electric
The subtle structureof spaceplasmaforrnafieldsmeasuredon Interballand Prognoz
tion is often observed.The filamentsin astropolar cusp.
8
nomicaland auroralobjectsare seenin risi- tespectively in the outer
Two chamcteristicscalesof these strucble light. Satelliteobservationsof plasmapa- tures
can be clearly distinguished.One
mmetersshow that this is more general feawith
temporal
scale20-30secondscorreture of the plasma.The analysisof observasponding ro spatialscalesof tens of kilotions from Interball 1, Magion 4, Prognoz 8
metres, the olher one-smaller-withtemand Cluster in the outer polar cusp and poral
scale of single seconds related to
magnetospherictail have shown the exisspatialscalebelow 10 km. They could be
tence of this filamentary structure of the
plasmain both studied regions of the mag- createdby dre nonlinear evolution of the
cuffent systemflowing in theseregionsof
netosphere.The application of the wavelet
the magnetosphere.
The nonlinear analysisof the kiAlfuenwavesshowsthe pos- : . I netic
sibility of the filamentation of
these waves with a minimum
characteristicscalecorresponcling
to characteristicscales of Alfuen
soliton (Binghamet al., 2001).The
characteristicscale has the order
ofthe Alfven wave lengrh.Its minimum value can be expressedby
I
the local electron density: 1",,>2.2
x10 3 /nr/'[m] if rhe plasmadensity
n is measured in m'. Another
non-linear mechanismwhich can
lead to the filamentation is the
field aligned electric cuffenfs
l : ' i r ' ir , ,I pinching (Galperin et al., 1986).
Ao,
-t
I ;;;;'
can gener:rlesrn,crures
::::","
Nith dle smallesr size lliven by L>c/(Dp(c is
thc light s velocity ancl coodre plasrna,sfi.e
qu<' (y) lt cJn l,( -rl.o cxprr::-eJ rrr rrrc
( l ( \ r f o n l , ( r l J e n s i r y . r sl 0 - n L r m J B o r l r Occurrence's distriblrtions of the aurorar
]
''hJrJLr( fl(li( \c.lles(lcp(nJ i,(r(j)ngiy
on lhc kilometdc radi:rrion (AKll) xnd its r.ighrhxncl
: r l l r t L r (.ltrn ( l i | | c . i i f l i r e n l i n l l l c o u t c r , l n ( l ( x t f . r o r L l i n i l |(yR X ) r n L l l e f r h : r r r ,r,l r , l i n e r v
inner cLtsp.Assllming thet proton density in fL-Or w:tvr ro.lrs h.rvr l)een Ll(tcrnline(l
]
tne outcr polar cusp is comDarableto its for all local times fi.otn the measurelnentsoi
vxlue in the mxllnetosheath10',103mI , rhe AKR on Interball-2 (Aurorul). The AKli is
minirtralAift'en wavelcngthscan havc val- mucli lcssfrequenton the d:ryside(20 % of
ues l)etween 22 ancl 70 kin, whilc the srruc- thc ol)scll"'ingtime) thxn on the niqlttsicle
lLt|Ls ;enrr'.rlctl l)v llle r frcnt j pinalt: g (70 %). A bulk of its disrriburionc;rends
r l r , l r : r n i . n ,r . r n b r ' . r s ' r r t r l l . r . I . r k m . I n f|om higl] invarianr larirudes of 80 dcg. ar
the inncf cusp at lrfeja oibjt's iltituclestltc after-noonhours clown to the latitLldesof 60
nlcxsufedcleisity is 10' l0r" r.nJ which cor- deg. on rhe nighrside. Dnysidc AKR is
fesponds to Alfuen rvavelengttrs of 2.2-7 g e n c r ' . r t clJr k . r l r t ' n i A t l t : i ( l eu n t ' r l l ( j u J t l r
km incl pinch gencralted structLlr.es or Irte
s.lm(
n lccltJnisnt.
rlre
100-300m. In rhc rnilgnetosphedcrtil these electron-cyclotfon nuser instabilify. This is
st|ucturcsshould havc sizes in ooe or(ler concluclecl from dontinarion of the R-X
' , : t A r f .O l ) . i r v r l l , \ n ;
p r e s r r r r r , irn. Jr l r qp t c mode on tlte cl:rysideNnd nighrside as \\'ell.
rious chapter arc in goocl i!.lreement \\,l .l At eilernoon houls the L O mode occurs
thesehypothesisand, to sum Llp,()nc roay nrore hequently at iower iilvarianl latitudes.
sxv thrt the structures oftcn obscryed in the T l r i si , c x l r l . r r n r .Ll r y , l i ' r . L npr1 6 p . 1 g , 1 1 , r n , . 1
poler cusp can be generltecl l-ry nonlinear lhc L-O rnude lrorn nislll.id( c,,ur(cs f.rr
stltgeo[Alfvc'n rvevesevolutkrnwhiclr 1;ro- lreyoncl the "horizon" of dte R-X mocle.
duces bilillcr strLlcturesand by nonlinear of Prtchy "irreglrlar" specrra of circular
thc fielcl elignecl currenr's pinching \\'1tich polarisation ()f AI(R l]eve becn ol>scryedfor
gener:lIesslltalllesIstructLlres.
thc firsr time by Interball-2. They are
t.l. Bkch t interpretecl ns connected to irregular
refraction o[ the Il,X rays in the D]asmi s
clensity IluctLlatiolts near tl.re nightsicle
sources.We conclu(lcthar rhe di],side AKR
nxs two contponenlts: one the cnission
propagateclfron the nightsi(lc sourccs, xnd
anottrer one-generrtecl in the dayside
sources, possibly reiated to thc cusp or low
lxtitLrdeboundary layers.
'l
(J. I {anasz)
Rcduction of all dure received fr-om the
X r,ry photometer-imagerRF15l has been
finished.Now the clataare availaltlefor the
entire1995-2000
perio(lwhen thc n)rssron
wils ilctive_
ll,'
0 .S.yluEster)
i
,{tl
SPACE PROJECT
Cassini
me goal oJ a joint NASA/ESAtnissiotl
Cassitli is to stLtd)) extensiuel! tbe Satut't'l
s))stcmand its latEest moon Titan. Thc
nissiotr uas launcbed o1xOctober 15,
Iqo- a tld alicr !rct tt! assist.flyhlsoJ'
l/enus, Eat'Lb,andJlJpber (colrespond inglJ)
on April 26 and J.tnc 24, 1999, Attgust 18,
1999, and Decetnbcr3A, 2OOO it tL)ill
at'riLe at Sahnll on Augttst 1, 2OO4to
becolne its satcllite. IttJanuary 2005 a
HWGENS ptobe uill be clrappe.l lom fue
satellite to seftleo1t tbe Titail's stn'facc.
SRCPafliciPates in the flissiot1.
measuLefilenls. Therefore, the next
c:rlibrationis planned to be performed in
2003 in the Open University Laboratory
(London), in q,tich the spare flight model
of THl, will be used.The modelling work
on Titan'satmosphereand ionospherehas
been continued in 2003 in co-opemtion
with colleagues from the Institute of
Astrophysicsof Andaluciaand hasresulted
in determiningthc altitude profile of CH4
(mrlh:rne)
from e comprrhensive
photochemicalmodel in good agreement
SRc<levelopedinstnnnentsiDsidedrc HUYCENS
with tire Voyager data and other
conrxtner
constraints.The following message,issued
by EuropeanSpaceAgency, presentsthe
hot scientifictopic connectedwith Titan.
I The mission,launchedin the fall 1997,ison
(M. Banaszkiewicz)
its way to the Saturn system and will reach
Titan at the beginning of 2005. The
Huygens probe will be deployed from the
Cassinimain spacecraft to lancl softly on thc
surface of Titan, the lxlgest satellite ol
Saturn. The checks of all Huygens
instrunrents are lerformed cvery six
months and so far, the temperature (THP)
sensor built in Poland as well as the other
Surface Science Package sensors haven't
siros'n any problem. Vhat is to be done on
the grouncl is the recalibration of THI, for
thermal conductiviry r'neasurements.Thc
analvsis of the calibration per-formecl in
1996 showed a 10ol0systematic bias in the
therlnrl conductivity value obtained from
Airf()biologisli rrc (liscrrssingwlr:it E\As I
Rhen i
HLrygens
HLrygen.spaceprobe
sprceprobe oright
nrishr disco!er
discovelwhen
plrrachutesto the
it plrrachutes
the surface
surface of Saturn's
Saturn'smysmys- |
terrous moon,
terious
moon. Titan, in 2005. Titan
Tiran pos- |
sessesa
i rich
rch atmosphere
iltmosphereof organic
orgrnic mole- |
c u l e s . which
cules,
w h i c h Huyliens
H r r y g e n swill
w i l l analysc.
a n r l y s c . ReRe j
cinlly sone
cently
sonr( scientists
scienrislshave
h:rvc begun
bcgun to think i
l)y redefining
llr.rr, by
that,
rcd(fining life in broader
bro:rtler terms,
rerms, I
what
w l r r t \\:e
n l m^y
m . r yfincl
f i n ( lon
o n Titan
T i ( , r nmay
m a y be
b e life.
l i f e . If
If I
(
will
lhis is the
rhis
rhr cxse,
c.rsc.ir
il certainly
crtJinly
not be
I)e life as
Js I
we know
we
know it. Titan
Titan is an astrobiologist's
astrobiologist's I
dream laboratory.
dream
laboratory. Its atmospherc
atmospherc is comcomposed of nitrogen
posed
nitrogen and
and methane
methane gasgas- UltraUltra-J
t8
violet light from the Sun can break the
methanemoleculesapan, leadins to the
formarionof complex organic m6lecules
by which scientists mean molecules containing carbon. Carbon compounds arc
the first step towards life, as we know lr
on Earth. Life, irself, is based on extremely complicated carbon molecules
such as DNA. Somescientistsbelievethe
composition of Titan s atmosphere
closelyresemblesrharof early Eanh, before life beganon our planer.Huygens's
investigationsmay revealhow life began
on Eafih. Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA,S
ProjectScientistfor Huygenssays,..One
ol the key questionswe hope to address
rs now comptex the organic molecules
have grown in Titan's atmosDhere.
However, organic molecules are srill a
long way from life itself. So, what defines
life? I,yhat is the difference between the
living and the nonlivins? Scieotistsare
still unsure.No satisfactorydefinjtion has
been found so far. Any atiemDtto define
life's characteristics
either excludessc)me
types of life or includessome inanimare
obiects.Vhen tooking for an apDrooriate
definirionof life, rher- is one pi8peny all
scientistsseem to agreeon: all life needs
energyto sustainits metabolism.For ex_
ample,plantsusesunlight,while animals
extmctenergyfrom organicmoleculesIn
the food thev eat.
This happens not only in these
higher-levelorganisms,bui also in rhe
simplestforms of life on Earth,microbes.
Microbes are single-cell organism,sthar
capture-theirlife-energyfrom a dizzyng
arny of inorganic chemical rcactrons.
Such chemical metabolisms are so different from those in rhe animalsand plants
of Eanh.that asrrobiologisrs
now wonder
if life could arise in any Dlacethat can
sustain a dch network of chemical rcactions, such as oo Titan. Moreover. on
Eanh, microbeshave adaptedto the exfeme environmental conditions. Scien_
Liststhereforenow ask, "Could life arise
on Titan?"By all standards,Titan is an extreme and hostile environment to life. as
we know it. Any life on Tiranwould have
to be totally different from all Eanhlv
forms.Lebretonsays,-The condiUonson
Titan are not adequatefor rhe kind of life
we undersrandtoday. lt is very cold and
there is no liquid water but weshould be
ready for surprises." Idenrifoing life is
tricky, especiallywhen you are-unsure
what to look for. Huygens's geologrcar
and environmental invesfiqations.and
Cassini'smapping from orbit, might,<cord chemicalanomaliesor curioul geological strucfureslhat warrant further in_
vestigationas possiblelife indicators.
A(istic view of HUYGNESprobe landing (ESA)
(from ESAuebpa.ge)
SPACEPROJECT
Coro{ras-F
Tbesatellite was l^unched on July i1,
2001 a circul4r (5oo kn), Pol^r orut
1nclin.ttion 82.9). Thescientifc goal ofthe
issionis to studydynatfiicalprocessesof
solaractivity (activeregions,flares, patticle
injeclions)in a broad electromsgneticand
enefgeticspectntm.The sc[enceittstlume ts
(total /'ass 395kg) includeX-raY
high-resolutionspectrophotometers
for the
particle
energt spectrometerfor solar porticles'
and
sidies of activeiegions
being archivedonline now). The data flow
this
aboald
are
(about 30-50MB/daY) resulteq ln -o.) ItD
Two Polish instruments
Russiansolar physics mission: RESIKand of solar X-ray spectra already collected.
Diogeness.both Bragg crystrl spectrome- Some of the flaies have been observed
terr"for observarionsof the solar flares' oaricularlYwell.
X-rav spectra.In the year 2002, the SRC A specialcatalogueof good observationsis
teamwis involvedin the operationofthese in breDaration,and contains -500 entries
two instrumentsfrom the ground and in in- for'the vear 2002.All the data collectedby
coming dara's reduction, calibration and RESIKare availablein the public domain
the analysis.Commandsand programsto for download ftom dedicateddata server
the on-board computer COMP have been (hno://surfwv'nv.mssl.ucl.ac.uk/surf/data-r
sentin a regularway, apProximaielynnce a equist.html). RESIK instrument in flight
week on an average.The data reductioncaiibration has been often made. Special
orocesswas optimized to such a point that calibration sequenceshave been develihe incominq new data were published on oped in this respect.Calibrationissueshave
the Internet;ithin few hours in the form of bien discussedduring lhe exchangevisit
the final cataloguepages(reduceddataare programmesupponed by the specialgrant
DIOGENES- X-RaySpectraDopplerometer
20
-
-'
l
benvccn the R()yxl Society in(l rhe Polish As K rnd Af first i()nizxtionpotenrixis(Fll))
Aceclemyof Sciences.In ordef to tcst oper- diffcr substuntillly,such Nn anllysis rl.ill be
rtion programmes,a duplicxtc of thc entire of beckgrorrnclimportunce fbf investigilcommunicllti()n link ilnci the on,lxrercl in- tk)ns of postulxte(l clepenclenceof co|onltl
stru'rent cofitputci has been constrLlcted plrtsme compositi()n on l.ll). It \vits unexrncl electronicllly tcstecl. Dedicxtccl chti n ( r l c L lr u \ ' ( 5 ! 1 ,X - l \ L r ) e m r . ' i , , ' rr . \ l l U ]
compressionschcmc have been clevcloped IIESIK.Ve hxYe linishcd the feclucrionof
xnd is \\,niting fbl the test usin{.{rhis gfoun(l "2i00 high resolution spectm of fhrc's rcsupp()rteqllipment. On the X rxy spectn corclcd
b_v scrnning
spcctlorrelrr
tecorclecl,nen, preliously r.rnoltsen
ed Diogeness.B:lscd on rhis clela,rvc cletcr
lines of potxssium hlrvc bc'en i(lentificcl.nlined the Doppler shifls of X-I1r1'lincs
The rnulysis of their intcnsities,especiillly froDr the X5 flxrc \\,ith unprcccclcntccleccn
Nith relxtionto the pr(xttinentAr XVII lincs f1lcv.
llso (t)scr1'cclin the spcctrr, s'ill ibmt thc
(/. S_yluj?star)
,4
1
l)ilseli)r dctxilcclstucliesof lllc solar cororlxl Pl:!sn'lit
comPosltlon.
lx
l{l:5lK Ilr!l)
S c n s r v i t v5 ( ) i l \ l l . r \ 5 1 x , . ( r r x l r l
RESIKweeklyflux variarions
in 4.3I - 4.89A band; 9457spectra
xl_-;tl
RESIK
M
a
BE
Nov ll
Nov l2
Nov lJ
Nov l.l
Nov 15
Nov 16
Nov l7
In the .lispl:rv:rb(^c,lhc soler'X-rayflucnccsecn by RESIK(blick points)is plolted lft)p
GOES fcd Iinc. Only pcrkxls \\'irh g(x)d spccrr:llmeirsurcrnenrs
irrc inclicirlcd.The lolitl
nLrmbcro[ goocl spl'crr':rllne:tsUremcnlsis gi|cn in rltc ritlc Iinc.
SPACE PROJE.CT
Integral
INTEGML is thc Ettrcpean SpaceAgetlc! s
gat t,a-taY astrollollry rnlsstoll,
strccessft.)'la trchedfiam Raikonro' ott
Octaber t 7, 2002. hltcgml urill ptari.lc
itcu'ittsigb! itto thc lnost riolelrt.tnd
black
5v6l 415
..f,--alic
ab|ectsof lhc tt111'9152,
"ltltcgrdl lrill .!lso hclp lls
/)olL,s,jt;,tlan stats.ttclittegctl.!ctic nt!clci atld st!pentor.le.
411'lll:)e
k) t;ale$l(1D(lprcccsscssttclt atstllc.fornalidt Qf tru) chetttic'tl elenrcltls
tit.J'stariotts
!:attnnatlz)' bttrslslhc ntas!cttogclicphetnnulLLiDlbatlttircrsP'll)isuill
bi possib/cthanks tc.ti leg1?ls cotttbilt.tliott afJina spcclrcscop! tnul iltt'lgiltll Ql
is (ccanlric
gri,rr,r, 'r,., etlliss[ottsi]t tllc ctlct.qi' t-dttgco/ i i kcl: lo 10 tllcl' 7be arh,
ittclin'tliot tttitl)
i\2 b,,t,, ,ri o,,,trl t1,,"E.tl tb. 10 000- 153 OAOkilt,ttclres dllitttdc, 51"
its
tit.1lettbotv tl)c
D:|]sl
ol
taspcctta)tbe cqt!(ttol iatlpl|]le Thc spLtcect't.fiu)ill spcnl
rrltittrtlc ol'10 tiotrscrD(l kn 01!lsicleEdltll s t'!'littliott bdls tl)()1h-J)r'(lttc[]4
114)ttblic l?ttssl't
bdckgtotitttl ttrcliatiolt cff('cls Atl I'SA'snrctnber sldtcs Pdtllld 'zrcl)
aD(l LiS calttribltlc tbc sciclttific Pa.l'la(t([s
.
l
nelld)y stxr. Ol)
Sun ancl clevortr-ing'.1
''Intcgril's fi$I lcx>k lt the g:rmln'.1-ra,v
LIni i ( 1 1 i n ' :C v g n l r s\ I - r . l l i ( l r i ' r L l l l i \ i l y
r'"rr" l8 D.. 2002 IISAs !l1u'nmnr'.tysatellite, , l , ' : . ei , ) r n o r r ru n n C r l : r x y , ' n l i l 0 n o o
1 r l , . r r . l li.- r i r l l \ , , n \ . r . r t i , , n .fr l '.l . r v l r r r | A I . r l . licllt veals fr(rul us _ is il vcly irup()ltxllt
'l'his
l r r 't. g r ,, r ' r r .Il ' r i , r k i ' r gr r ' , ' ; . ' o l t l l ( l r i A l l( r r - step io understenclingbhck holcs.
efgy llni\'ersc \\'crc Prcsente(l in Pilfis, \ \ r l l . , 1 \ (i rL r n t r i l 'c- ' n r r n . lr, . t ' r r ' , l r nt l. r r
clrllsLrchiiitixl (t)scr1x- n r u n . t r , ' r ' r ' , l1' .l r ' , r , t l r r ' ' 'l l r ' l l i ^ l l tri l t '
I";rncc.Astronomefs
'fhc
hiflh-encfgy Univcfse t l r ( I n . r ' \ ,r ' , , , r '. 1 1 n . 1 1r l , r ' L ( r l l l < , , f L' r l
tions fifst light.
'l:rPslrr
- r "' ' r .! x o r o . r r*n, ,s' , ' 1 "l ' l ,l l l l : . . . _
. . ...
sLldr rts tlLtr.lcompressedncLrtfon stllrs,
Cxlxxv.
Dtlring
thc inilirll invcstigrltions'
ollins
lrncltl)c rlt()ste\trerrc, !lli c()nsLrlllinlllt!lcl(
holes. Thcse cclesti-.tl()l)jcctscrcltte X-fltys
lincl gentrttlt rll\'s lllilny linlcs lllorc poNcrfLll
thxn'ilre ()PIictllr.l(li;iti(n \1'e can see \\'ith
rxrr-e-ves:incl oPticxl lelescoPcs lnlcgrl\is
- thc scrcntlsrs
rcsPonin\'estil.llltors
DrinciDll1
iiblc ioI. Intcg|al's instllrncnts - exPhin thc
srlcllxs
cNciill fole thilt high-cncfgvnlissicnrs
xn(l
X
rxy
listfon()rlly:.
in
Integfxl Plxy
.
to
is
lt
eurlinrxrltv xstrononly
P:Ltlllinclcr Lrnthe
()Pticxl
*'avelcngths,
,.rsull objicts. At
rly
rnd
At
X
numl)ef a)f sllfs is stllggering
g'.LrlirtletLv \\'ltr'elcngths. thefc are fr'\\'ef obiccrs. but ihe ones thirt rclllllill ltfc the rclllv
Declrlieroncs." As l fifst tcst, lntcgral ob- ien,eclrlie C)'gnusregion of the sk,v,Looliing
oerriculltrlt':it tlle enigrrlltticol)ject' Cygnus
i 1bSince-thel9(r0s,\'c knorv thll this ol)icct hxs been x col1st:llll gencrlltof ot
i , ' , 1 , . 1 . ' r : rI . r ( h l l 'l n \ l ' l \ . l ( r r l i ' 1 5 l \(' \l (
l l , J La \ t r r ' r . \ I i : l l r ( s i l ( ' ' i . r I ' l : r 'k l r '' l ' i
hlrNing arouncl five til'l'lcs the ulxss ()f ()Llr
Bxikonuf-htrnch()l Intcgllll
scientistshxd ll nice sufprise whcn Intc
grarl cuptLlrcd its first f.llllrlnlll-rilY bLrrstT h , ' , . r t r : r ,' r , r i r' r r , r l . ' t r . r l r ' r l l o ' " n '
xn(l occLllfroln filll(knll
rfe LlnPreclictltl)le
'{
'T
Liire.l:^ns:t| 'oLrllNi(1 :l (hy TIrrir p|t.cisc l)etNeent$o neLltfonstitrs.Intcglill pron]sol\,] originis conlcntious.Tlley coul.l be tlte re- ises to provide lhc vital clue t()\\,xfcls
suhof nl:lssivest.rrsc()llxpsingin the dislxnt ing this p:l iclrl:lrcclestirl mystety."
Univcrsc or lhc resLtltof x collisk)n
(ESAtNr:O10-2002)
Payload:
o M ccafiera
J B M - Xmotritof
IBlS telescope
SPI spectrom
Sl)l - SpcctrometefNitll coolcd Cc (lclec-Opric:LlNi()nitor\\,irh CCD lncl lcns
to|s. cocleclm;rsk llltcl :lctive slljcl(l ( .J.-l).OtriC
(l\1.Nls-Hcssc,LAEFF-lN-IA,
jvlxclficl,
optics
Il(xlLrcs,CIISIt Tr>Lrl<>usc,
Ffxncc :tn(l \/.
,'tl
l
Spiin).
ScltocnfLlder',
NIl,1.l
,
Gxrclrinr.l,Cerntitnv).
F,
IBrs - lm"g"'; r*'r "*r ,n'"-.", ,"t;f
(Ccl-lc rffirv, 16000 pixcls xncl Csl :rrfllv,
.i000 I)ixels),nctivc !cro shiel(l (32 l,r"-tli),
t12 licv clllil)rlLtior'l
sour-ccunclcoclcclnt:rsk ]
(P.,Ul)c11ini,
IAS Ik)nc, Irxly).
SIIC l)AS wrs respoltsil)le li>r menLrflrcttrre,
ta'stxnd (lclivery of Vcto EleclfonicsBox lhc' controller of
veto srrbsystem.
(l'.Otlc.uiski, L.azci'i k.t, O.Czcrtuiuka,)
I I.lI i clJ.tIskd, waAbllnrrcA-lt, t\I. lVi I tk Ic1.,
I].Z u.,i ci z-l'ti sk.I)
JEM-X - X- ry monil()l-\!illl nricfostfipproportionll coLrnter lncl coclccl mlsk (N.
I-uncl,DSIll, Copcnh.lgen,l)cntltilrl()
SIICI)AS\\,11s
fcsponsil)lcfbf pirft ()l llilihr's
solin erc Daocltrctiorl( G I M b I t i kerski ) irrd
.lllll-X l'ICSF::Denufuc!Lrrcitn(l clclivell
(,1
L.ll ot? ,sk i, ./ K t {tsou \ k i ).
lr'
The system includes 16 Veto Modules (produced in Laben, Italy and Bergen Universiry,
Norway), two Calibration Unils (Laben./ano
Veto ElectronicsBox (SRCPAS). The syslem
significantlyreducesthe IBIS noises.The C:rlibution Unit (Laben) and the spectra measurement capabilities provided by \4B
make possible the in orbit calibrarion, optimisation and anticoincidence system of
whole telescope.
Vuro uo"t*oo"cs Box(\,EB)the part of IBIS Telescope
VLB is lhe I)ig8es(JnJ rnosr comlli(rrrd
so far produceLlin SRCrnd
flight lrarLlwere
hunched on-board of ESA'Ssarellire.8 kg
weight box consjstsof about 2500active and
1i00 passive spxce qualified components.
The unit is fully controlied by IBIS computer, VEB
Flight and VEB Flighr Spare Moclels
however, thanks to llte implemented
close the long list of models deliverecl by
SRC in frame of Integral activities. More
than 10 different units, staning from laboratory nodels through\BB simulators, Fac
tory Tests Equipment, Slrucrure/Thert'ltal,
Engineering and Qualification Models have
been manufactured prior ro rhe final flighCs
delivery. The design and manufacture of
flight hardware fully meet the high level of
reliabiliry requiremenrsi,pecified by ESA
tor Integralinstruments.
VEB Flighr moclel
microcontroller and flight software, most of
VEB activities can be performed autonomously- The main task of \TIl is to supply
rncl control tlle IBIS anticoinciclencesystem.
In 2002 the VEII FM was successfully integrarcJ wilh the rest of IBIS relescole in
Laben in Milano, then with rhe whole salellite in Alenia Spazio in Torino. The unit was
-17.10.2002.
launched on
The resulrs received from the orbit after the first months
of work shows that the anticoincidence system and especially the VEB work correctly
xnd the noise's reduction of the telescope
ilre even better tlnn expected.
(P. Orlearkki)
Firs! in-orbit spectrafrom 5 II kev Calibration
ESTEC:IBIS detectors and anlicoincidence measured
by VEB source
syslefi
just before integration with
Intcgral
satellite
21
SPACE PROJECT
Rosetta
TbeRosettaconletary nission af tbe
E ropean Spqce Agctlq) taas platmccl to hc
l.t tltrched i17January 2003. LtnfotlunatelJ),
dtrc to problclTtsLuithtbe Ai n?c laLlncber,
the nXsian bas bee11delq)cd. 7he Spacc
Researcb Centre participates in tbe
MUPUS,experimetlt ilruoll)ing a penetrator
aJthe colnetaty nucleus, ancl WRnS -for
nrcilltoriltg the sltrface altd atlnosphereof
lhe iTucleusln tbe L,isl.t.tland infldrccl
|'Cr
t|ge.
-l
Thc Rosetta ntission wxs piannecl to be
l:tunclted in January 2003. Unfortmately,
clue to pfobletrs vjth the Ariane lxuncher,
the rnission hxs been delayed. Althoulih
llteR i\ nu (lollhl tlttt thij, corncrslonemi5sion will cventuxlly be sent to a comet,
nissing rlte opporruniry of tlle launch jn
Jlnuary, followed by the graviry assistnexr
iuars, has resuhed in cltange of the target.
Conlet Wifianen, could now be reachecl
onl)t via gravity assist iu-ound Venus, but
this environment is too l\,arm for Rosctta,
or :rlternilivcly by ('rnploying J srr(rngrf.
lrrrtlcssrelillrlc, ne\1 Arirne ro(l(c(.Tllercfore, a new target for Rosetta nust be chosen and it will be, most probably, comet
Churumov - Gerxsincnko, which is signifi
cltntly larger thlrn Wirtanen (5-6 knt of di
rmeter instexdof 1.j - 2 klr). This cruses
seveml technical problems, a harder. landing is expecte(l, stronger ejection velocify
of the lancler from the orbiter is needecl,
however, none of them is intrxctable. The
present lnission plan forcsees fin:tl technicil xdjustmenrsfor Septembcr 2003, rernreSration of the whole spacecnfr inter this
year, and the launch in carly 2004. The activjty of the Polish part of MUPUS' rexln rn
2002 w:ls concentrated on three issues: (i)
updNting rnd checking the flighr software,
(jj) preparing dre fligl-rtspare and the referencentodelsofthe insrrument,and (iii) upL l . l r i nlgl l e L l u c u t n ( n t r l l i , ,Inn. ! d ( l i r i o n ,t l ) e
proiect EXTASE,wirh rhe aim of applying
lhe MUPUS'thennal sensorson rhe Exrth,
was continued. As for the software, a new
version of the numeric:rl program for the
ANC-I,I/T accelerometer was preparecLand
tesled with Ancltoring Systefirin real cond!
tions (Garching, Germany). The small grevi t y o n t l l e ( r , m r ( W i r t r n . n r e q u i t c ri l s p e cial rnchoring subsystem (ASS) to be Lrsecl
in ordel to attach the lander to the nucleus,
surface. A special harpoon will be employed. witll rl)e rRo scienlifi( Mt PUSsrnsors :rttached to its top: the accelerometer
and the resistance thermometer. The scnsors are connected directly to the MUPUS
electronic subsystem ANC M/T, wher.e srgnals arc sampled rnd processed. The
MUPUS penetr:1ft)r
ANC-M/T unit will measurc decele.ation of Planetologie,Muenster) seveml measignll of the harpoonas it will be passingsuring campaignshave been carriedout to
throughthe nucleussubsurfacelayersand, prove proper performanceof the spaceexafter anchoring, the temperature of the perimentand the method of MUPUSin tercomet at rhe depth reached by the har- restrialenvironmentconditions.In particupoon. The final version of the flight soft- lar, the sensorsmanufactured in Poland
ware for MUPUSwas loaded into the DPU have been employed to measurethe long
instrumentduring the lasr functional test tefln temperaturevariations in tlte snow
performedon the lander at ESTECin Au- field coveringSpitzbergen.The secondancl
gust 2002. Few weeks after the mission's the third measurementsessjonwas or€lastart the lander payload will be checked nized at the testsite of the InstituteofAgridu.ing the "CommissioningPhase"verify- cullure(lA) in Lublin,wherethesoils moising the condition of the systemsand instru- lure and tempemturesensorsfioln IA as
ments. For almost ejght years, from the well as two MUPUSlike arraysof temperacommissioningtill the rendezvouswitlt the ture sensorswere used during two-daycomet, the MUPUSinstfumentwill not be period. The measurementsare being proswitchedon. The next operationon the in- cessedanclrvill be published.
strumentis planned during the "Separation,
(W. Banaszki.wicz, W.Marczeushi)
Descentand Landing" phase. The special
testingproceduresand the required clocunentation have been prepared (by M.
Hlond) for both mentioned phasesof the
lnrsslon.
The spareflight instrumentand the ground
reference model are ready in 80%. The
main document describing cach of the
Rosettainstrumentsis entitled the AcceptanceDataPackage(ADP) and containsthe
technicirldetailsand all relevantdata
The MUPUS ADP, which comprises 200
pagesand more than 1200pageswith relevant sub-documents,was preparedin 2001
and delivered rogether witlt the flight
model.
However,severalsofrwareproceduresand
some hardware interfaces of the lander
havebeenchangedlater,thereforethe document hxs been modifiedaccordrnglyin
2002. The more derailed description has
been being preparedby the team of members under ground segment consortium's
(RLGS)requirements.It is not necessaryfor
the ADP bur it has high informativevalue
for the researchers
that will operateMUPUS
in 2013. Finally, within the frame of
Self - himmefing mechxnism
EXTASEproject (provided by Institute
26
SPACE PROJECT
Mars-Express
1'beMAI?S EXPRESSDlissian,scbedt.ied
b.yESA.[orlauncb iD 2003, ruill loote.fa].
subsl!rlctcestnctlo'es of the planet anal
sl (l_1,itsslt(face a1?.1atfitospbele. Tlte
SpaceResedrchCetltre PASpanicipates
in dercblrtrcrt o.f the pI-S (pl.tuctary
I:auriet SpccIt()ntetet.)experitr1c,Itlo
tlclcntline tbe cbcntical colrrpositiott of
Ihc sr!t'ft!ccatD.l Il1cetiltoE)l1ctc of Md6.
- l
. fhe ESA'Scornerstone itission Mlrs Exprcss 200J (l\.fEX) schccluled for rrrrucrr
xl thc end of NIay, 2003, \\,iil invcsrigxte
thc surfxcc .Lndatlnosphc'reof Nl:lrs fr!m
boercl of thc o )itcr, xn(l clrry out
close-to-su arcc Nnd sul)sudllce slLldics
usinll the lxnclerRe:rglc.The puykreclof
lllc orl)iter contplises 7 \'arious instrLlnrents.One of thenr is tltc l)lanetaryFou
rier Spectr()mctct(PFS) constrrrcreot)v
r n i n l (r n u t r',n : l l( l r : r l i J n- I ' o l i s l l- R J \ i - l r
Germrn - Frcnch - Spirnish- US -.hpanesc)team in which the licmote Sensing
Dept. of our Centre w:ls trking active
paI't.The (]evice is i spectroDretercoYerinll the r:lnge of \\,avelengths from 1.2 to
.i5 mm in the infrafe(I, with spectrtl reso
_
I
Scrncr oi l)lxnctary
Follficr Spcctft)mcI€r
lurion of
2 / cnr. Since the tnissionI
IVIARINER
9 of 1971, I)t,S fras been ex
pccted t() provide tltc most prcciscspec
tra ot Nlxrs. llar(lNare plo(lLrctionh:ls
bcelr carricd out nl:linly in Itilly (in the
T..rirIo Lli I r(ic.l (lellu sp.rzr,,
Intcrplilnetlrio
CNII in Ronc) enct rn
Poland (rt thc Space RcscarchCcntre).
The flight unit of PFShxs becn inlellf:rre(l
with thc spicccr:rfIin Fel)rLrr11,2002.
TIte
spirre Lrnits of the DC/DC conver.rcr
(so-cellcd 'rnocluleP') ltnd of the pointing clevice(so celle(l 'mocllrle S',) were
xssembled xt SllC during 2002 xlrd clcli\ered to It.ly. Finxl rcsrs of the q4tole
A I : t r I: x l t r e s si p J ( L ( r , l l :rr f ( l r r , ^ r ,J r n g
:lt lhe cntelprisc Astrium of Toulouse.
During 2002 thc sofiwxre for PIiS/N1EX
clxtl unalysiswils prepltreclxt SIIC.h will
seF,,eto verify and test the cquipmcnt in
the commissioningphase of thc flight s l t o r ' t lryf r r ' rt l r r l : r r r nl ,r , a n , l i n t l l r . ( r r t i \ ( .
phase - on the inrcrplxnerxrytrNject(ny.
Regadinll the scicnrific plxnning of pFS
obsenations, SIiC coll.rboftltcs w jllt
I|'SI CNR xncl the UniveNity of Lecce.
These studics aclclressmxinl), tllc quesliLrn uf tll( l)rs\rn. ( :|l(l \l)r\ lf.\( 11i(
( l (( c c l l u n, , f ( . l r l x ' n . r t (. .r r \ i ' t : l l r LlLn
tlre ivlrrrtixnrcg()litlt.
(AJu ]cu.,icz)
''{
SPACEPROJECT
Demeter
DEUIETERk a Flench proiect oJa lou
altitudc n[crcsatellite tbat .lins mainlJ/ at
the stud)) of electromagneticsignals
generated b! seisTnicor uolcanic euents.Its
lcnnching is expectedfor tbe bestnning of
2004. It tuill be theii$t nission of tue
CNES microsatellite series.
resolution 1 secretary.)Spectnl analysis
of one electric component fronl 15 kHz
(frequency resolution 10
Studyof ionosphericPerturbationsas relatecl up to 10 Mhz
to seismicactivity'Jnd global stuclyof the kHz, time resolution1 secretary).
ErIth's electromagneticenvironment
oblectives
Scientific
In botb tnodes (bttt totth dilJeretlt time
lesolt!tio11)
Nleasurenent of the neutral atmosPhere
velocity,
(density,
temperaturc,
loc1ll
the
of
Measurement
composition).
ionii and electrical densities from 103 to
106 cm_j. Measurement of the local ionic
ancl electrical temPeratllre fron 500K to
J000K. Mcrlsurementof tlrr llle Inajor
ions' (H+, He+, O+, NO+) densities,
velocilics.
and
temperxtures
Scientific rayloads
seafcjl cojl nxgnetometer
set of four elect cal Prolles
plasma sPectaolnetef
langlnuirprobe
p:lrlicle detectot-
of electronsPectrum( up to
Measur-ement
T.-ra i
I he Ph)..sicalParameters me;rsufed
by DEMETER
In the BLrst flocle
vaveforms of three electric components
flom DC up to 1 kHz.
'wavefbrms
of three mdgnetic cofilPonents
Hz
up
to 1 kHz.
from 10
'waveforms
of one electric and one nagnetic
component from 1 Hz uP to 15 kHz
In tbe Stttue! tno,le
SpectraL xnalysis of one electtic an.l one
j megneticcontponents fronl 1 Hz up to 15
kHz (trequency rcsolution 20 Hz, time
L-
-
-
|
.
(uP to 70
30 kev) and protonspectrum
kevt. Sprce Re'earcircenler I'AS is
involr.J in Jeveloprrrrnrof both tlrt
hardwarc and software of this project
The power supply module for all the
scientific instruments was built in sRC.
The flight model was built ancl installecl
on the DEMETER microsatellite. The
soffware for the control of the scientific
payload (GSE) and for the (lxta
conversion ancl Processinli was also
prepared in SRC. The first results of dre
application of this softwxre controlling
the scientific payloacl arc shown on the
figure below.
'
28
U.Bpcki.)
SPACE PROJECT
Herschel
n)e goal aJ the liSA'Scontetstone tnissioltHe'cbcl is to
llrle6ta/td tbc conncction betu)eentbcJbt natiotl of sta$
and plaltetalt- s-ysteins
tuitb inrcBbllar cbtrds atrl
interstclLlr nedilun. me .,ission u,ill enablc extet..siue
obsci'ratiotlsof infu$tellar nolectlat clct tls at1ltl,lust in
tbefo| illftare.l .h1clslbmilineter range fthe Nicalas
CaPcnticusAshanoinic.tl Center pAS 1ncl tbe Spacc
ResearcbCentrc I'AS ltre among the pafticipaDts). 7he
spacectaft, tuhose lau.ncb is scheduted.for 2OO7, uilt t e
loc.ttcd at the so-c.tllcclLagtunge point L2 drtcl ttill obsene
.t sPectruluindotu at the bautldatry betueel inftarcd crncl
t adio.f1?.luellcies ir1[be spectrul tallgeflon jAO b 600
inictotnerc$, that tillltou bas neuer bec s bjecl to
as|io o 7icctlobserlrations.
HIFI Heterodyne Instnrment for
Herschel Mission
I
ESA'sHerschel.ESA'SHcrschelSpn." Ot --l
scff:rt()rywill bc biggerand bettcr'thuneny
of its prcclecessors.Moreover, it \\,ill obESA'S Herschel Space Observatory (fbr, serue at wevelengths nevcr.covercclbefore.
merlvcalledFar InfrareclandSubmillimeue It will be loc.ltecl 1.5 milli()n kilomcrres
Tclescope or FIIIST) will soh,e rhc mysrery arvay fron dte Eardt, Nt titc position cxlled
ol ho$,surs and g:llaxieswere born. Infi-a- L2. Herschelis bounci for leunch in 2007. g
reclrstronomy is young bLrrfruitful. ln less
drxn three decades infrared astlonomers
hlve unveiled tens of thousands of rrew
llxlaxjes,and have made discoveries as surprisinllas thxr ofthe huge anlountsofwater
vapour that fill the galaxy. yet scientjsts
Know there is
still much more
to
discover.
Objects such as
otner planetary
systems,or processes like rhe
biflh ofgalaxies
in the exrly Lrnive6e, can best
Cleanroonr in MPIfT{ the firsr inicgreri()n
be studied wirh
of LO chxin
infrlrecl spxce
telescopes in The Herscltcl sareliite is xpproxjnrltely 7
space. This is metres high and.1.3 metres wide, wrtlt a
the reason foa l.runchn]xssof eroun<l3.25 tonnes. It will
l)rololype of one of the
of c r r r y t l t r i n f r : , r ' r 'tteJ l c s , o p r . r r r l r l r l < s t i modules of I'ILCU (SRC creation
PAS)
entifii instrLtmcnlsi
4-
j
-
I
]
]
]
fbr the Fxr In- l'hc inslrLlrnents Nill ll.rve to be coolcd
HIFI (HeterodyneInstrLrment
frlrrecl), e Iiigh-resoitrtion sPectronrcter, ckru,nto bclo* -27I'C, less thxn duee deI)ACS ( I'h()t()cletector Afra)- Cltnleru rlnd grees rbovc the xbsoltrte zcro (273'C).
This very Iow tcnlperilture \\'iLl be pr()vided
Spectfomcter) - :l crlrnerr.
\ l l l i l - ' \ l \ \ r r . r l J n d I ' h . l , m c l r , ( l l l . r ! . i n ! by cryosteclfull of supcrflLridliquicl heliumIn this missi()nSIIC 1)ASc()llxborxtcswith
llF.ceivcf) xphotomctcr.
Thcy hevc l)een clesiline(l especixlly k) I I : r \ I , l : l n c kl n s t i t L l t l(..l f l { ( l l , , . r L t r u n rL:,, . ,
JIrL,SpxceOrgxnisxti()nof Nethcrlxndsrtld
C^nadixnSpaceAgcncy end is tcsPonsiblc
for thc clcsign,ll]anuitcture,testsxnd deli\ery of HIF'I Locll Oscillltor C()ntrol Unit
(HLCLi)-thc 15 kg clectfonic"hcirrt"of500
GHz to 2000GI{z hctcfodyne(oscillrt(n) (t
thc inf!xre(L spcctr-ometeL.Th!- fifst sclups
of micr()w,rvcchlrinslbr thc oscill.Ltorhilvc
been intcgrlrtcd in NII)lftt in 2002. III-CIJ
A t h r r n , , r l S i r t r r r l : t t ,.'frl 'r L lH L C U A t t u n t t t
Nlo(l.'l two. (lelivcfccl l)v SllC, rloclcls of
HLCLI wcrc successfully integntecl !incl
'fesl
EquiPnrent
tcstccl.flodr thc firck)fy
S()itw:lfe
xnd the Test llnd Nlelrsurclrrent
p|ocluccclin SIIC lbr L()$l C)scillrlq Sul)systenl \vefc usc(l ([lring thc integrxtion
I llCK r\vionics iuo.lcl
pfocess.
benefitfrom lhe peculixritiesof this nlission
llnd rc offcf suPe. scnsili\'it).
t#
(l). Orlc.tiisL:ti
)
I
J
'If
!,tra
*-lx
Iifcsfolrnd: Lxlxnltory modcl of lTHz chrin ()f IIIFI locxl OscilLrrcf Sul)systefil
(menufuctufe.l in -ll)L&\ll' lflt). Bxckgrounclright: EngineefinitNI()dclof I IIFI LO Conlrol
-- {ll
Unit froDl SIIC IrAS
lF
l
DATAACQUISITION
The Astrogeodynarnical
Observatory in
Borowiec
'111c
Obsen'atotJ'is it7lolL'c.l iD tbe
[ollo0i]tg projects:
[.$er I t.ic k LtIg of scttelI ites,
- positiolliDg rDcats rcnlcnts b1)l11caots
of
G P Jh \ l ) t \ J o R | u t l l n l , , r l! , t t l . t t t , L , t t r
,;::l:
:;:,"
i:::,,1{,"'
ijiiji'"1:.,,
", \
;::,:,1;':i::,:
Su,.ur,. *..
oangingstation
Tllc S:ltellitc Lilser Ranlling sLLtion in
Boro\\'icc (No lllts 7811) in the frrme
r r n r k o l r l r , I n l , r n : r l , o n : rLl l : , I l i . r n t i n !
Sen,ice(lLllS) xnd ELlllOL,{S Consoflilrnr
perli>rmecl419 successlll passesof 1[3
sxtellitesin 2002:
- LAGEOS-1rnd LAGEOS-2sxlellites:115
p:Lsses
ES]\ sxtclliles;llRS 2 rnd ENVISAT:iJ
l):Lsscs
o t l I r l , ' r r o r l ' i t\ r t i l l i l ( \ l r i l ) r \ \ r ' j
- GLONASSsatcllitcs:5 prsscs
Tlte rcsultsof Bo|o$'iec SLIIsllrtionsup
portecl scieirtifa prog|ans of tltese satellites in(l \\'ere Lrsedlbr ()rbils culcu|rlions l)y ESA,NASA,Centerfol Sp.lceliesexrch Uni\.ersity()f Texils (CSll),Conrmunicirti()ns lieseirrch
Lrl)ofltory (CRI-) in To
kyo, illission Contiol
Cenrrc in llussi. (N{CC),
Delli
University
of
(DLIT),
Technology
N:ltural Environment
l(cs(ifclr
CoLrncil
(NEllc) in Creat Bfitain,
Shrnghxj Astionomicxl
Ol)senrtory (SAO), tIS
t\11\':lt
lre pr-escntcclin clail)', $ eekly or'
bi rveckly r'epottsof these orgrnizxtions.
InstrlLrtionof the tiDrc inten,lll c()Lrrtcr
S'I'ANFOIiD 5l{620 (fion1 Nfxy 2002) xnd
signific!nt chlnges in electronics of
''stxft"xn(l 'sk)p" chxirncls(Oct()l)erDc
ccmber 2002) $efe tlle Dr()stinrportxnt
u | g r : r J r n gn f t l r , R n r ' t \ " ( ! \ l . l ( . y \ t c | ' rI n
2002.Thc fcsLlltof thcse systeor nroclerniz:ltion \\'rs signiticrnt improvenrclrt(3{)
perccnt) of singlc sh()t precisi()n i-()nr
xboLlt3 cnr io 2 cll'rlt lhe encl of 2002.
l)rocessingof SLII()l)sen,lrtions
wus con
tinue(l in lJoro\\'iecl)y n]cxns ol NASA
GIIODYN-ll orl)it1llI)rogrillr. The c<>or'clinrtcs :Lndthcir shl)ility ()f xll SLlt stxl i o r , \ 1 , , - t l L 1 r ' r ' r , . 1I O ' ) o 0 U l n
'lhc
ITI{F2000systcnl \\'crc dcterminccl.
metlx)d of clctcfminulionof thc SLI.Istar
I
Obseryxk)ry
(LJSNO),
Geo[.ofschungsZenter
(GFZ) xnclseveralothef
'l
institutions. hc results
LrscrIlxnJling systcrn
tions' co-ordinatcs llnd control of quality
ofthe data was significrntly developecl in
2002.
(5. Schillak)
ilne Service
-
-
T
lmpol.trnt results:
* Continu:rtion of rvork crtr'rieclon Gl)S
rcc(ivcr\ lol rinr( l|lLnsfcf(fi\-2). C,,n
lit|uction of TTS-2 receivers for Nationill
Institutc of stxndxrds and Technology
(NIST,, t s{ lnrl f I' Ob'crr'.rtori.
Nxcional ONRJ(Brrzil).
* Startof the nork, and first rcsultswith
the new fiS-3 receiver integrrting ol)scrpositioninll sysvxtions of all availal>)le
tcms: GPS, GLONASSrncl eclditionxlly
EGNOSl)xseclon.lxvrcl LcgecyEGGD.
' Further developmcnt of Polish ln(lependent Atomic Tine SculeTA(PL).
* Developrnent of the system of distril)ution of pfecise time et PZU coil]puter neF
s urk Sy{lertris l ,rrsr'don ( ( i'iutn :llrtlli,
clock.
(J N.!u|ocki)
F
G",
.'I'he permanent GPS station located at
llofo\viec (point BORl) performe(l in
2002 continuous CPS measurementsin
the framework of the Internation:rl GPS
Seffice for Gcodyn.rmics (IGS) and Euro
pcrn llcference Fmme (EUREI-) net
rvorks. The lloro\\,iec GPS stxtion BOlll
delivershigh qu:rlity(classifiedlike other
lilobal IGSstation)ancloutstandingintcr
national repurxrion chta in 2002. station
BORl makes a valuxble contdbution to
global geoclcsy xnd relxted research in
the frame of lGS. The ddta deliverecl by
Boltl xre used for precise ofbit ancl GPS
stations' coordinrtes' calcLlltltions i)y intcrnational xnalysis centres: ESVESOC
IGS ProcessingCentfe, (Germany), Center for Orbit Determinlrtion Europx
(CODFI), Bern (Switzedand), .ll'L IGS/FLYNN Processingcentre, Pasxdena
(USA), Natural llesourses (Canacla), ancl
Scdpps Institution of Ocexnography
(USA). This demonstrates thc high quality xnd utility of re BOR1 site to users.
The own :lnalysis of GPS resulls b),
n]eens of orbital program BPE v.4.2 hrs
been perfonnecl in 2002 fbr control of the
data stabiliry in the local net*,ork.
(ll,L Lebnann)
Theoretical definition of the melhod of
Time Inleryal Error mcasurcment Lrsing
GPS carrief ph;lsc obscffirtions itnd its
plxcticrl verific:rtion wils proposccl. The
melhod was tested using obsery!tions of
gcodetic GPS receivers driven by l{-mxsers ancl ccsium clocks c(nrring fron) IGS
stations.For scvcml individuxl dxys of
observation ffequency's slxbility be''
tween H-Dr,lsersvauies froln 1,4*10 k)
'''
1*10 for integrxtion tinlc of onc clxy.
Also frequency compxris()ns betweeD
I{-nr:rsersrnd ccsium clocks s[o$, \'ely
high accurecy of processing. In the future
the nrethocl coulcl be very usefirl in
telecomm!lpplic!tions.
(A.'l.yranousk.t)
ll
INTERPRETATION & MODELLING
SPACE PITYSICS
olar p hysics
ihe inflowing interstellar He akrns is
cle:rrly visible in the innerheliosphere (in
neutral and pickup fluxes) during ail
phases of the solar cycle.
3. In the innermost regions (r - 1 AU upwind/crosswind; r < 3 Atl clownwincl)
He+ pickup producrion rates and relnted
fluxes are anticoffelirtcd with the soiar
activity. At larger cllstlnces (bcyond 10 20 AU) their devialions fiom tl're ncen
fbllow the variability of the heliLrn
photoionization rate.
4. The position of naximum slope of the
PUI distribution function corresponclsto
the heliocentric disrance at which the
maximum of heliun clcnsiry occLlrs!t I
prlticular timc. This clistalncevaries dur'ing the solar cycle and for each specific
ofl.setangle is correlated with the heliuln
loss rate. Hcnce, dre position of the maximum slopc of He+ PUI clistriburion
function can be usecl es traccr of the heLurn lossrrte :,n.1ils r\ olrrlionL[rringllle
solar cycle. Combinecl with inclependent
information on the EUV ionizing flux,
this coLlld rllow to detcnninc the contributbn of eleclrcn imp^ct ionization k)
tire net helium k)ss ratc xncl thus give insight to the relely knorvn bchrvioLrr of
solar wincl electron pxmmetersjnsidc 1
AU.
(M. Bzoutskl, IlJ. I:ahD
The LPA "limb position adjustmenl",
method, worked out last year has been
recently improved. \ve have xpplied thc
LPA for a nurnber of events obselwccl
commonly with Yohkoh and TRACE.To
this aim the catalogue of common
(Yohkoh and TRA.CE) limb flares hes
been prepared. It has been found thxr
both hercl and soft X-ray emissions of
flar-es(as seen on the Yohkoh HXT and
B r l l C S X T i m i t g c r ). r n L l l r < F U \ < m i '
.run of tltc'c fleres(srrn on TMCE irn
ageset 171 A and 19i A) comc from sep,
aftlte regions of the corona. The investi
gxtions of plasma distributions (accordinll to the temperature and density) in soler flares r.rsingLPA method have been
advxnced. In particular the distributions
uf hr so r.rllr.l quir\i.Jiffer,nliil crnis
sion meesure (qDEM) and classical DEM
have been determined xnd led Lls to tllc
conclusion that the present absolute
photometric scale is not unique among
various insllunents obserying the X-r:ty
coronil. In orcler to improve the qurlity
of SXT imxges using deconvolution tech
niques, we hlve lefined existing algo
ilhms
of
dre so callecl blincl
deconvolution and lested new rpPro!ches.
. Bxsed on an extensive moclclling, a
(8. Slluester, J. Sllu'ester)
method of remote-sensinganxlysis ofthe
l:ltituclinxl structure ofthe solar winu arcr
T T
its evolution during the solar cycle hNs
l)een developed. Thc methocl is basecl
I leliosphere
on obseNations of the heliospheric
Despitc the preirature and unexpected
Lymln-alpha glow performecl from 1 AU
dexrh of Dr. Daniel Rucihski,studieson
:lr speciflc grand circles on the sky. The
interstellarhelium and derivative particle
cofel:ltion bctwcen the latitudinil strucpopulxtjons in the heliosphere continture of dre solal wincl, $,hich lexves imprinl on inr( atellirr lrydrogen In tl)e inued. The results of these studies are the
following:
ner heliosphere, ancl the glow cllstribu
1. The distribution of interstelhr neutral
tion on sky was quxntitxrively stucliecl.In
pafticular, funcrionrl dependencies beHe atoms xnd fluxes of He+ pickup ions
are significantly affccted by solar cycle
t\een rhr r:rngc.:rncllr(igllr uf rhe i,,n(mainly
effects
by strong veriations of the
izaltion bulge ancLthe north and soutlt
helium photoionizationrate).
ringe. r' well as (lcfllr of rlR,groove in
"irelium
2. A pronounced
cone" stftrcture
the heliospheric Lyil]xn-alphx glow were
resulting from gravitarional focLlssingof
discoverecl. Specific su{.allestionsfor the
interpretation of the xctuxl groove pro-
files were put forward. On the basisof
thesecoffealationand availableobservations of the groove following this research,the merhoddevelopedwas applied to observationsof the heliospheric
glow performed by SWAN experiment
onboard SOHO mission from 1996 rill
2002.During the last solar minimum, the
flux of the fastsolar wind from the north
and south polar holes and the north and
south boundaries of the polar holes
bands were different:a true nonh-south
asymmetry between the polar regions
was detected.The area occupied by the
slow solarwind was quite stableand offset slightly to the south with respectto
the solar equator,extendingto about 30
degreesN and 35 degreesS from 1996.5
till 1998,wheo it expandedby abour 10
degreesnorth and south and then moved
towardssouthemlatitudes,continuingits
expansionin latitude,so that it engulfed
the south pole in 2001.A non-negligible
north-southasymmetrywas noted in the
Lyman-xlphaglow profilesalso during
the period of high solar activity.After the
solar maximum, the groove reappeared
but its staucturewas, featu ng Nvo min-
ima at midlatitudes.The rangeof the fast
solarwind is correlatedwith the rangeof
polar holes and engulfing the whole
spaceby the slow solarwind during solar
maximum cofielateswith disappearance
of the polar holes. Net sunspotareasin
the north and south hemispheresof the
Suoduring the 12pastsolarcycles,indicative of nofih-south distribution of the
solar magnetic field were analyzed. It
wasconcludedthat north-southasymmelries were commonplaceduring the past
cyclesand th4t the polarity of the asymmetrieswas changing,leavingno statistically significantremnantasymmetry.This
suggeststhat the solardynamo is responsible entirely for the asymmetryand no
remnantmagneticfield can be seen.Re,
connaissanceof the large-scalestructure
ofthe solarwind and its evolutionduring
the solar cycle is important for the
heliospheric physics with respect to
plasmaphenomenain the solarwind and
to the variouspopularionsparticlein the
heliosphere,as well as ro studiesof the
evolution of heliopsphericstructureand
its complex physicalsystem.
(M. Bzotuski, T. Makinen, T. Summanen,
E. Kltolo, E. Quemerais)
. The numericalresultsobtained from the
3D MHD + neutrals time dependent
model of the interactionbetweenthe so/'
lar wind and the interstellar medium
\
have been published. We repofi a para,
metric study of the effect of the LISM
--a
\
magnetic field strength and inclination
anglein the presenceof the neutralH-atoms on the heliosphere and the
N
heliospheric
boundary.lve vary also the
7
N..\
density number of the ionized and neutral component of LISM to show theit
contribution to the SV-LISM interaction
in the magnetohydrodynamiccase. For
the first time we presenta completediscussion of the numerical results of
alignedinterstellarMHD flow illusrraring
Illustrition of rhe contns! befween lhe potar and
differentclassesof solurionsknown in
equatorialintensityof the heliosphericLymnn-alpha
the MHD theory, including a swirch-on
Slow from solar cycle minimum to m,rxlmum.The
shock case.These resultsare compared
contrast is high during the solar mioimum and
with resultsobtainedbyAleksashovet al.
,l(crersesro :rlmosrnull during rhc solarmrximum.
(Asrronomy Lefters, 26, 743-749, 2OOO).
It isdifferenlfor the north and sou(hhemispheres.
The interplanetarymagnetic field has
been includedin the 3D MHD numerical
\/r
Y
v
(V
/v
code. Severalcaseshave been calcunrecl
fbr the dipol and Parker model.
(R. Ratkiel,icz)
. Tlle effe.ts o[ rdr]irion.rlcolourrd noise
on well-l<nown chaolic clynamicill systems h:lve been tested in the frar'nework
of nonlinear analysisof rhe solar wind.
\Ve focus ol1 classjcal chaotic systems
c u r n r p t e db y w l r i r r : r n d c o l o u r i , l n o i s e .
\ve study the depenclence of the correlatk)n clinrensi()nxnd dte Kolmogorov entr'opy on the noise level and its spectral
exPonen!. As it is well known, $,hite
noise strongly rccluces the r,viddt of rhe
sc:lling fegion for the correhtion climension xncl entropy. On the contrury. we
derlonstmte that colou.ed noise cloes
, r o rb a s i ( r l l ) o b s c r r r et l r e 5 \ r l i n g r e g i u n ,
changing only the sh:rpe of the conelation sutr fo. length scales sntaller than
the noise level. Tite nunrerical results
show that, even frtr-:r noise level as high
as albout 5qo,a reasonably wide pitteNLl
for the conelation srun is still obtained,
but the vrlr r(,of tlle ( Jlcul:llp(l(lrmcn5ion
is somewhat increased. The calculetcd
coffelationdimension is:l bilineilr func
tion ol'the noise level encl rl,e climerrsrorL
ofthe noise, \\,hich clepcnds on the spec
tr:rl exponent of the iloise. On the other .
hand, the width of tlte scaling region for
the corrclation entropy clepends on rltis
spectrirlexponent,buI rhe value of the
plateuu cloes not chtnllc substantixlly.
This ix 1rsubiect of grexr inportance, ro
.(trdy rc:rl5yilcrns.wlrcfc nois( is neJrly
rlwlrys present ancl influences the deterministic componcnt in a otote complex
way.
(D. Pleucz!fiski, S. Reddelli)
T
Ionospheric and
magnetospheric physics
Analysis of high frcquency noise spectra
and :lntenna inped:rnce clata from the
ACTIVE, AI,EX xnd COIiONASI sareilires
has been pursed. II was confiitned thitt
equivalent circuil simul;ttions are indispensable ingredienrs in application of
both tcchniques. Two extrerne spectral
patterns of antenna voltage spectrum
were identified with equivalent circuit
simulutions of impedance data. For sufficiently magnetiseclplasma, ebsolute volt
age maxioturn occuls at uppcr hybricl
frequency. For sufficiently deusc phsma,
rbsoltrte volnge maximum ()cculs \\,itit
dre frequency of palallel circlrit resonxnce, which is lo$,er tlt:rn plasrna fic
quency. Upper hybrid frequcncy can be
direcdy n)onitorcd with the first extleiDe
specllxl pattern. lf the second extrcDlc
p:lttem is rnisinrerpreted with the firsr
one, one getsefloneous veiuc of plasrne
density, which may r'esult in essentilll
missinterpretation of the high ficquency
noise spectra.Significantcnlcial effcct of
rntcnna pat-allel resist:lnce on basic
spcctral struclrlrcs in noise (latt was
iclentified too, nanely, d-rexnplitude of
parallel circuit resonlnce decreasesltnd
clepression in the vicjniry of upper hybrid band fills up, as .rntenna pxmltet resistance decrcases. Thcse new findings
give deeper insight into significancc of
equivxlentcircuit elenents llncl lelations
l)etween instruments designed bv our,
rlncl otheis teams.
(A. Kiqga)
A new method of determination of the
djrection of AKll (xuroral kilomerric facliation) from board of a spinning srtellite
has been propose(t. It trses measurements of power clensiticsof the teceivecl
rxcliatioD jn three o(hogonxl xntennrs
xrcl assumption that tlre AKR is circularly
polarisecl. Supposing that the AKIi originales from altitudes wher'e local electron
gylo-frequency is equal to frequency of
the observed r.ldiation, fiis methoc aF
lorvs to localise AKR sources in the
Earth's mxgnetosphere(M. Pancbenko)
. Scintillation effects on propaglrion of the
GPS pulses have iteen simulxted. It was
shown that even for the moderate scintillation intensity titc instantaneousranging
er-ror can be as large as 0.6 m. Local
propenies of the ionosplteric highlxritLrdeturbulence have been srudied usinli
llrrgc data base. It was shown that irregu-10
iilrities with scales km - 200 m Nregen
erxteclby the grxdient-(lrift insrxbilities in
the collisional and inertial regimes, in
agreementwith the linear rheory.
(A. wcrnik)
with the field was (lerived and described.
T$/o poinrs.rightly c.'upled. are (lecisive
in the development of magnetic storms:
activation ofions sources for the ring cul'
One of open questionsin the physicsof
rent and the distribution of electric field
the Ea h's magnetosphereis the lack of
constituents
in the magnetosphere. It
large-scalerepresentationof the non-powas
shown
that
near-midnight near rail
lenti;rlconstituenl
of the magnetospheric
region
is
a
source
ofions activated by the
electricfield. A unique representationof
induced
elecrric
field,
while the pdential
the elec(ric field. induced by rime
constituenrs
of
the
elecrric
field chive rhe
changesof the magnericfield was conwestq,ard
drift
of ions frorrr the <Lrwrr
structedand its structurewas described
sloe.
in terms of intensity disriburion, field
(E. woclnicka)
iines pattern and their depenclenceon
the tilt angle.The plasmaflow xssocjlted
PHYSICAL AND GEODESIC STUDIES OF PI.{NETS AND EARTH
The firodelling and interpretation of
planetaryinfraredspectrarequirefair acquaintancewith complex refiactiveindices, the so-called "optical constants"of
cosmic analoguesmateriills.It turns out
that the spectraof the latter, depend in
the caseof crystallinegranular marerial, '
on tlre sizecntl the shapeof the gr:rins
:rnd may differ from the spectra of the
samematerialbut in bulk form. This phenomenon can be accounted for
accuratellyby consideringoptical lattjce
excitationsspecificto small particles,the
so-calledsurfacemodes.The purposeof
my studies, carried on together with
coleaguesfrom the University of Lecce
was to renlind and clarify the role of surface modes in the spectrometryof dusts
on the example of the spectraldepend,
ence of the complex lefractive index for
particulatesampleof limestone(CaCO3)
in the spectralrange 1.5 - 62.5 mcrm. It
tumed out that around tlle bands at 30
and 43 mcrm, whose assignmentto surface modes raisesno doubt, the refi-active index shows up x clear dependence
on dre assumedgrain shape.The result
dei'ronslr.rtes how imponant is the
knowledge of the size and shape of the
paniclesof the soundedmedium for the
interpretationof the spectrafor crystalline dusts.In the caseof Mars,where car
36
bonatesappearolly in traceamountsso
firr, the describedresultsrvill be essential
for spectrophotontetricidenrificationof
theseminerals.
(A. Jurcwicz)
Co*.ts
and ^t..oids
Dynamic evolution of five long-periocl
comets:C/199501 Hale Bopp (4 = 0 92
AU),C/199682 Hyakurake(4= 0.23AU),
C/1998 1,1 Villiams (4 = 1.15 AU),
C/1998T1 Linear(4 = 1.47 AU) I C./1999
H1 Lee(4 = 0.71AU) is investigared.
Two
sets of 401 orbits (rcspectively coffesponding to the pule gnvitational and
non-gr.rvjtationalcase) determined cii
rectly from positional obseryaltionsare
constructedfor each comet. These crrsembles of orl)its were Jntegraredfor.
wards and backwardsup to 400 kyr and
analysedwith respect ro probabiliry of
different outconres such asr cxp
tured/el'ected orbits, long-period xnd
shon-periodorbits.
Conclusions:
- All five cometsclearlysl]ow the departure fiom purely gravitationalorbirs.
.Tlte slxlislicalconclurion\ch:rngrsignificantly when the non-grevitationaleffectsare included in the anxlysis.
- Three of the consideredlong period
comets(Villiams, Linearand Lee) seem
to be dynarniclllyyoung..The younge'r
one is the \villiams Comet wltich probably has just come for tlte first time to the
inner Solar System. Dynarrical norrgravitatiotal evolution shows that this comer
wjll be elected fiom the Solar Sysremafte-r1 iew revolurions with the probability
ol 0.8 .
The two rcmaining comets ar€ not dynamicxlly young. The Hyakutake Conet
seems to stay longer in tlte innel pnrt of
the Solar Systen than Comet Hale-Bopp.
The non-gravitarjonal calculafions inci!
cate that Hyakutake hes made at least
hllndred rcvolutions before its discovery.
(M. Kt 6Ii kotosle,t-Sohan)
the change ofthe comet velocity in result
of the nucleus fiagmentation observe<l
on March 21, 1996.
(5. Szutotuicz)
I \l,ll :rOl'l'
; d
o
(i
:
. Thc fole of non-gruvil:ttionJlfor.crs
in
the orbital motion of two bright and fan r o L r(so r n e r sC
: I99sOl Hrle-Boppand
C lq96 B2 HyrkurJkr wes inr esiig..rreJ.
To model the non-gravitational acceleration, obserwedprofiles of the comets' act l r t j | : t t 1 \. \i \ ( l \ l i l
tivity dependinli on heliocentric disr^nce
rvere empioyed. The analysis of comets
HeliocenL.jc distance (AU)
activity r!as based on the measuremenis \vrrcr p()ducri(n
f:lreslor cornersC/ t99i ()l
of water and OH molecule production Hrle-Bopp
a,ncl C/1996 82 Hyakulake as
rates observecl in a very broad spectral
function of rhe heliocentricdistance.Tne rect
range from ultraviolet to infiared, as well
as on the total heliocentric nagnitudes. curves represent leest-squlfes fit of the
The analyrical functions were fitted ro observed production rates Io scaled
the observations by least-squaresand in nongr.rvitationalg(rllike function. The green
cluded to different models of tlte curvesshow scaledsclndardfunction gar. The
symbols (circies, triangles, squAres, sBrs,
non-grilvifational accelelation.
Conclusions:
diamonds, crosses) represent differenr
- Th( or l)itrl molion of holh comcL5evi determinationsofthe productioo
ratesend clots
Jenlly exhihits non gr:lvitationrlclfecls. (for comet Hyakutake)denore values derived
- Tl-re obserued variations of water pro fronr visual
magnitudes.
duction l.ale with heliocentric clislance
clo not follow tlte theoretical funcuon . Studies on mean motion
resonances
g(, expectecl for an isotl-rermalnucleus
(MMRs) smqng Centau6 and giant
and cornmonly usecl in orbital calculaplanets were continued. The researcn
tions.
has shown that proto-cometary obiects in
- The non-gravitafionalmodels oflhe obtlleir pre-active state can enrich the Main
seryecl water release allow to or:Larn Belt population. The work
indicates tltat
better orbital softltions thiln using the
some pafi of Centaurs can also enncn
lunction g(rr, especiallly in cise of the
groups of asteroids (for example: the
comet Hyxkuteke.
Griqua group). Tl're resonance siickness
- The non-gravitational models wirh the
is the majn mechanism stabilizing oy
observed water production yield an es!!
namtcs ot some group members tn
nute of dte nass of dre nucleus, ancl
100 000 year timescales.The research alk)rcecl ptecession models give con
lowed to find the most frequently obstl-irintson the nucleus sltape.
served MMRS and remporary ,,islands of
- The best orbirel solution for the
stabiliry" in tlle chaotic regions of the giIllirkLrtilkr comet was forrnd ilssurning ant planets and tlte
Main Belt. The aF
I
E
l
i
_
l
l
8
A
B
tt
'f
'l
l:i
T
MMRSstabilizingorbits in a time-sPanover 10000 years- (a, e) plane
tachedfigure shows the stabilitybands - .
the regions where small boclies are
longerthrn l0 000
trappcdin timescales
yei.s tup to l(r0000yearsin ll)r calcula'
tions).
(R. Gabryszeuski)
An ephemerisof the SolarSystemio rectangular coordinatesis produced by numericalintegmtionofequation of motion
of nine pl3nets,the Moon.ilnd the Sun
Recurrentpower series method of 26th
order is applied when integrating the
equationsof motion in barycentricequatorial coordinates.Initial dita of the JPL
D8405 ephemeriswere used to prePare
the starting data for our integration.A
comparison with the JPL ephemeris
shows that out ephemedsgives e.g the
solar coordinates in accordance with
r5'10'r AU in the interval of thousand
years. Staning data for integration of
eqationsof motion of five outer Planets
were prepared. The initial values of
barycent c coordinates and velocity
componentsfor Ceres,Pallas,Vesta,and
Hygieawere also found on the basisof a
largenumber of astromet c obseryations
of those asteroids.A subroutineproviding the planetarycoordinatesand velocity componentsfor lny date mry be included asa sourceofnecessaryplanetary
data in computer routines for orbital
comPutations.
(G. Sita6ki)
ls
lt has been shown that the sublimation
paranetersdrawn from observationsby
meansofthe model ofdre dust boundary
at Halley comel (Oberc 1996), are in
goocl agreement with the formula of
vapour pressuresoi cometary pol]./mers
derivedby Kruegeret al. (1991) This result givesstrongsupportto the boundary
model and leaveslittle doubt thal the latent heat of most volatile cometary
organicswas about 16 kcal/mol.
(P. oberc)
F,arth
rotation studies
For the first time monthly va ations of
spatial patternsof the pressureterm ot
Atmospheric Angular Momentum's
(AAM) excitationfunctionsfor polar motion were determined.It was applied to
3372 eq]al-area sectors for the period
l^n\t rv 1999 to December \999 ftom
meteoiologicalfields on 2.5" (2.5" t:!tithe
grid
from
tude-longitude
The standardmonthly deNCEP,/NCAR).
viationsofthe amplitudeofpolar motion
excitation'sfunction'scomponents were
displayed.The sequenceof such standard deviationsis giveo for each month
during two years1997(El Nino) and 1999
(No El Nino). MaPsof standarddeviation
have spatial pattems witll maxima over
Eunsia,Nonh Pacific,North Atlantic,and
a broad naximum over midl4titucle
lvop of stondord deviotion,chi pressure,JAN 1S99
o,3ra
o.2!Q
lonqitude
Map of standarddeviationof regionalcomplexvalued pressureterm of polar
motion atmosphericexcitaljonfunction.
South Pacificfrom sourh rip of Africa ro
North Americaare particularlyimportant
south tip of South America. The shape in the atmosphericexcitation functions.
and intensityof maxima is time depend- Maximaof the first mode of atmospheric
ent. One can see four sub-pattems,conexcitation functions werc isolated over
nectedgenerallywith four seasonsof the
regionssuch as EasternEurope,the Iran
year.Additionallythereare differencesin
upland, the Himalayan Mountains and
the pattemsof the non-El Nino and an El
Tibet, and Greenland.
Nino year. Higher variabiliry is often
0. Nastula)
seen in El Nino year.
. The Ocean Angular Momenrum.s
(8. Kolaczek,J. Nastula, J. Grygorczuk)
(OAM's) influences on polar mouon.s
. The AAM and OAM excitationfunctions variationshave
beenstudied.High correof polar motion exhibit spatial patterns lation of OAM (worked out by ponte et
that may be consideredas fundamental al.) with non-atmospheric excitation
modesexplainingtheir variability.These function of polar motion was obtained.
patternscontribute to the polar motion
Such correlation coefficient for the an,
excitation.Previousanalyseshave deter- nual oscillationis of the order of 0.9 an<r
mined that such power in the atmo- for the whole spectra band of 0.7-0.9.
sphere and ocean excitation can have
Co.relationcoefficientsof conelationbecomparablemagnitude.Here we analyse tween OAM+A.r\l\4
excitationfunction of
the atmosphereand ocean in more depolar motion with complex valued geotails, including both mass and motion
detic excitation functions are always in
terms aspects. The atmospheric pres- variousspectE bands higher than corresures have now been subdivided into
lation coefficientsfor AAM itseli Time
finer sectors,basedon the reanalysesof
vadations of these corelation coeffithe U.S. National Cente6 for Envlrorr- cients are different for AAM+OAM than
mentalPrediction-Narional
Centerfor AF
for AAM itself. Time variable spectra of
mosphericResearch(NCEP/NCAR)
using
atmosphericand joint atmospheric,oceEmphiricalO.thogonal Funcrions(EOF). anic excitation's functions were com'we
have examined spatial variability of
puted by the Fourier Transform Band
modes of regional atmosphedc excita- PassFilter - FIBPF. Specrraof AAM, and
tion functions computed in finer sectors joint AAM+OA]\4excitation's functions
than it was previously available.It exare similar in the spectrarangefrom seapanded our earlier results which show
sonal to short period oscillations.Tnere
that the atmosphere over Eurasia and
are similar annual, semiannual and
usuallyduring
cillationphasedecreases
El Nino evenis.The observedmaximaof
the amplitudesand phasesof this oscillation in 2000and 2001years precededEl
Nino event which staned in the end of
yeat.
2OO2
(1Y.Koseb)
The small effectsof lunisolarperturbations in the Earthrotationassociatedwith
{.1
0.3
q3
the departuresof the Earth'sdynamical
figure from the rotational symmetry
(about 0.1 milliarcsecondscorresponding lo ca 3 mm at the planet,urface)ap
pear in both the equatorialcomponentof
rotation(polar motion and nunrion) and
0.0
the axial component (variation of the
universal time UT1 and the length of
01
day). An anal)'tical model has been
worked out of this phenomenonassuming elasticEarthwith a liquid cofe, which
is consistentwith other availablemodels
at the level of 1 microarcsecond.The
other subject of researchconcems perturbationsin Earthrotationdriven by the
essesin the oceans.By using a new esti_
Polarmotion
mateofthe time seriesofoceanic angular
(Ponte and Ali, 2002) we
The prediction of polar motion using momentum
effect in polar
the
corresponding
and ARMA srudied
autocovariance,least-squares
periods
between3
of
prediction methods was computed motion in the range
rVe addressedin this reand
days.
30
of pole coordirhroughtr3nsformation
searchthe following questions:1) how
nate data from the cartesianto the polar
dynamicalresponseof the ocean to
coordinate system. Such transformation the
the sudace pressure va ations diffets
transformsthe Chandler and annual as
"invened barometer"
and rhe semi- from the static
well as the semi-Chandler
model, and 2) whether adding the ocean
annual frequenciesin polar motion into
angularmomentum to that of the atmotheir beat frequencies which helps to
improves,and if yes to what exsolve some of the frequency resolution sphere
tent, the coherenceof the geodetic obproblerns.The meanpredictionerrorsfor
of polar motion.
a few days in the future of this forecast sewations
(A . Bl'zezinski)
method is less than for the forecastcarried out by the IERSRapid Service/Prediction Center-However, these predicE*
**t",ronal field
in
the
future
20-30
days
tion errorsup to
are lessfor the Kalmanfilter, which takes
Orbit computations and analysis for
into account the equatorialcomponents
GRACEmission (the Gnvity Recovery
of the atmosphericangular momentum
a joint US/CerAnd ClimateExperiment.
excitatioo ftlnctions. It sr'asnoticed that
have been permission)
man
satellite
the beat period of the Chandlerand anformed. The GRACEmission consistsof
nual oscillationsrepresentingthe most
flying about 220
two ideoticalspacecrafts
energeticoscillation in polar motion rakm apart in polar orbjt 500km above the
dius and the length of polar motion path
Earth.The goals of GRACEmission: inis variablemainly due to variable phase
vestigationof the gravity field irregularof the annual oscillation.The annual os
subseasonaloscillationswith periods of
120, 60 40 days in AAM and AAM +OAM
rnd tlrey have similar amplitudevariations. Amplitudes of the oscillationsof
joint AAM+OAM series are not always
greaterthan the AAM. It meansthat their
variationsare not always in concefi.
(J. Nastula, B. Kolaczek)
40
ity, creation of x better profile of the
lutjon of gravirydlra r.equiredfor a centiEarth xrmosphere, studies of the global
oleter k) clecimcter eccutacy levcl of
clilnlrte changes. In 2002 we performeci
l t c o i L il i ,e { l i t : l r c ( l ' . p : r r : r r r lfyL r rr'r r u I i n c ,
preliminary orl)it contputlltion for Dour
llattNnd ntountllinous.lrcxs
s|tellites on thc base of SLR data from :r
(A. Llszkotuicz)
set of 30 laser. statjons (center of mass
. In 2002 ln original method
ancl softnar.e
correction not usecl). Tlte orbit derermF
for undifferenced processing CpS
nation \vlls produced lvith accuracy of
Inrese
lneilsuretrltenmwas further developecl. It
the ordcr 0.5 m (RMS) employing rhe
consNteo tn a pr()farar.ltmesolution for
sofrwafe cEoDyN II (NASA/bSbC). Thc
Cl,S ph4se rmbiguitics and cycle slips in
disl^nces and the velocities for the pea
slngle ol)sen'utionepoch. For thllt pLll_
riod from May 5, 2002 unril May 20, 2002
pose
x speci.rl peckage LAIIBDA, kinclly
cninfle - the short-tcfln changes are of
mxde
availablel)y the Universityof Delfa,
the
of one revolurio; cquxi rc)
rv:ls
il'llplemcnted.
.i666_period
The new version of
nt, dte lonlt tern clunges tre close
drc prograln PHASE $,xs th()rougltly
to thc linexr trend. Long term ch:lnges of
tested.
(li.st.rncesper wcek eclual 14.120 kn for
Tlle
obttined, testcclend DroDerh,moclj_
velocities17 m/sec. The semi-maioraxls
ficcl
for r large n.,nrbet of,rb.rerrijng .r"tor GITACEA lncl GRACE-B clecrerse ar
tions
ancl lelge inter station distanccs,
an irveragcof rLbout 29.6 and -36.4 me_
long
oDservtljon
sessions,
and
rersPer (ay.
inhomogeneity of st:ltion receivers, fca_
(i'1. Rt i karoskct,J. B. Z iel{1i ski)
tLrres and propefiies of rhe sofm,are
. A new method of tlte upwxrd
continlla_ PHASElllow ro clxssify ir as a new tect]
tion of point values of the gravjry ficlcl
n(togy iLvailxble to relevant research
has been-proposecl, based on tlte appli_
projects, They can be particulafly useful
cition of the apptoxinute reference
ror conttnuous seryice in rexl time of pcr_
lux)del (Upwxrd Continuetion witl) the
mrnent obsery:ltions for nevigalion lnd
lleterence Model - UCRM). Analysis of
Seodynxmics,wirh u possibie use of
die possil)ilityof thc xpplicarion of the
cPS, GNSSxnd calileo sysrerns.
EGNOS systeill to rhe GAI_ILEOlrrojccr
(W. PacbelsLi)
has been xccomplishe(I. Re-Ineesurc. The nlodifiecl softw:rrc PHASE
was use(l
nlent rnd repeat solutjon of the
to deteamine geocentdc positions of 9
I.IUREF-POL network has becn con_
points belonging to:l geodynalDicnct_
cluclecl.
work
in the south region ofrhe Bxltic Sca
(/.8. Ziclitiski)
in two obselw:rtiolt epocl.rs, basecl on
. The most populxr testssuch
as: suiletri!
CI)S m-i'rr|crrrcnts pcffi rt11eJ in Iqo3
ity of fit resr for nornal distributior, rer n ( l I q r ) - ( l l l ( ( i r r n l l J i g n iB S L g J . , n c l
jection of obsenirtions, testing tltc abBSL97)..The point positions rvere then
scnce oI syslenltlic e -ors,wefe cxrried
. r \ q ( l o J c l ( - r r ) ) r nc (l l i | { u i ( l j r l r i i g h r \J n ( l
out to delnonstrlle procedufes fbr cle_ I r \ ' i g l r r( l ) i r g c r
uf rlre poinlj.. \vl.ich
tecting lhe existence of non-randont ef_
along with other darx can be slrbjecr ot
fects in I)olish lcvelling networks. Grxvlty
geophysicallnxlyses ximing at detailed
field dnta in polancl are unalysed s1;cc- description ancl
intcrpr.etationof charrgcs
lr.rlly \\,ith rhe view of refining geoicl esti_
of rhc' Ilaltic Sea level. Howcver., the cre_
rnxtion mcthods. The analysjs watsbased
tennined height changcs sboulcl be con_
,'n cslinr:rles o[ (n)liric.ll (o\'.lfiJnc<,
sidered only as lln initjal infonnation on
tLrnction dnd degree variances deflr,ect
lo\sihle tenJ(n( i(s o, g(otectuni(
fron local gfavity obscrv:uions. Moclels
rnovetnents tn thxt region (known es
lor tltc vadanceof geoiclundulations:rre
ScanclinltvianLand Uplifr).
dcrivecl for tcsted arexs. Finlllly the rcso
(\v. P.tchelski)
GRANTS
AND CONTRACTS
All SCSRgrantsobtainedby SRCscientists
h thebidsI (Jaluory l99l ) throughXVI
(Jtrly 1998)vere conpleted(totalof96). ln
2002,6 intentatlonaland 34 SCSRgrants
atd 12co lraclswerecarriedoul.
T
-
I nternational
r
.
Study of exterre ultraviolet reson:lnce
glow near the Sohr coronx xn(l prepar:ltion fbr an upcominS shLlttlcexpcrinlent
"Hclioglow" (D. Rucitiski) - Institut hlr
Asrrolhysi( rrnJ ll\lr.Llcrrr.lr isLhc F,'r'
chunS der Uni\,ersitirtllonn (Germ:rny).
Grants
1 . coST 271 Effects of rhe xtmosphere on
T(-nri-rfirl .lnLl EARHT-sprrc(cLrmnllrnic]lion (1. 9anislaksh4) - C(,nrn]i5-iun
the
European
Communities, 6 . Reselrch lnfrastructure:
Europexn
of
Cupefiino in Science and Technology
See- Level Scrvice, contract No EUR
'l-CT-2002
widl Centlxl and Exstern Europexn
10025 (R. Zdunelz).
Countries.
7 . Research Training Net$'ork: Geospace
Regional Atmospheric Forcings for Pol:rr
Nbtion aB. ,KolaczcP)- NSF (USA).
TLllbulent Bounda$ Layers, contrxct No
HPRN-CT-2001-00314
EU.
5 . Studing the Encrlietic P ticles et the 8 . GNSS-I l)rogramme: contillct No
Tcrmination of the Solxr Vind vial EnerI l s j 6 2 0 0 0 / f W F H o i r i n go f . r l { i r n g i n F
/r1.
riL
\<'utr:rl
Atonrs
cacchotuski)
lntcllrity Nloni()ring Station (RIMS)
nnd
8(
NSF(USA),
ESA,/EU.
Thc distribution of interstcllar neutmls
end pickup ions in interplenetxry spxce
fD. R!c,irb, - NSF (LlsA).
G".nts
from the Polish SCSR
tr applied
I approvec!
-ll
-l \ccepred in the Seventeenth Bid
106.Sele(lrd problern\ in sp.rcc pl:r.rrra
r u r b u l c n ( e r p n i i c J l i o no f t l r eu : r v e _
let
transforn - A.W. Wemik.
of a general-purpose
eanuary 1999)
97. Developnenr
reeFtiine control system for x
space-borne instrument
L GaichL
(completed)
A
lLccepted in the NineteenthBid
(January2OO0)
9il. Investigation of the sur-feceancl armo
sphere of Mars during the Nflrs-Ex l 0 - . T l r ( o r c J ij (r l h . , s i sJ n ( l p r i c l i c j r rl i q i r r pressmission - A.Itrcuicz.
ments for clevelopment xnd unificiLtion
(completed)
of heighr systenu - A. Zlszkau,icz.
(completed)
99. Ifl\,estig:rtjonsof variation of the vertjL , l l i n r r r r l r c S i l r s i : r nC e o p r , 1 . 1 , . . 1
10
1 8 .I n l l u e n er o f r r g i o n . r Jl r m o j . p l r e r (i ci r
()L\et1.lc,rlwitlt rlre rrsr,ol :r
culation rnd of climatic change on
ncw
ticlalinstrun,lent'hyclrostatic
Earth pohr motion
clinomeJ. Nanula.
ter". Analysis xncl intcrpretiltion of ob- 109. Analysis
of intetucrion of interstell:rr
seNartions of the vcrtictl vadxtions
! . r s \ \ i r l r l l l c r o l : t rw i n c l i n l l ) , . I n n c r
ancl refincntent ofthe new tidal instau_
heliosphcr€ xnd in the heli<tspher.ic
llcnt -...-41.Kdczoft)wski.
boundxry relaion - D. I?ucitiiki, M.
(completed)
Bzotuski.
100.Stucliesof the elecrrontagneticenvi- I 10.
SIU(liesof cllJnAcsnf geo(c l c \.oorproject
ronment of rhe Etrfi Lllnilresof tlle ljorowit-c l:lsir sl:ltion_
DF \IFTER - J. Ai?tuiadonski (co''rS. Scbillak.
pleted)
111. Deternination of status vector for- e
101.The influence of variabiliryof the cx_
moving obtecrbasedon xn integrated
tfaterrestrixl environnent on radio
s:tleliite/ineftial positioning sysrem _
comnuniciltions
LStalristausktl.
K. Vorbr ic h. (Completed)
(completed)
l i 2 . D e v r l o p m c n ta n ( l l n . l n l l f J c t . l f i n o
Ff
102. lvhgneric field stftrcrure in the solar
.lecrlonics hlock for rhc ;"ii.;;J
corofii\ - J. S.yltucster.
den((, \ystrtn ol :r A.rnrrn:L
r<lesropc
(
nroi('ctI\TEC RAl. I Bls exf iri tenl , ll
- P. Orlealiski.
Acceptea
m the Eighteenth Bid
(;ury 1999)
A
103.Invesrigxtion of tsoiatecl, transient,
-faccepred in the Tlventierh Bid
rnoving structuresin ionosphericcur
Quly 2000)
fenrs Nt thc clefr region and of their 113. Analysis
of motion of chargeclp:lrticles
connections ivith tlte solar wind - M
xt the boundariesof the heliospher.e
l(,?l/is'&t. (completed)
and ustrospl'reresof some star.s(i,03C)
10.1.Control block for tl.re loc:rl oscillaror
A tl.lrzej Czecb or|s ki.
(HLCU) for I{ercrodyne Instrument fof
114. Preclictionof ti.le Ilarrh rotation (T128)
flilST. P.rcker:l,olrsh frfli(iptrion r11
- Wicslatu Kosek.
lhc s:lrellite experiment FIITST - j4
115.Aclaprxrionfor operetion in poland of
R.t ktj.
a station for moniroring rhe EGNOS
105.Influencc of cvolulion nucleus of
sercllitepositioning systen (Tl2E) _
one-ipparition conlet on tlte dyn^mZ.lzislaw Krysnishi.
ics ot its D]otion - G. Sit.ushi
116.A stucly of solubility of problems of
(completed)
physical geodcsy with respecr ro the
pliLnncclsxtcllitcgrxdionrctlicmissi()n 125. Se.rfchrficf lhe physicxl nechinism
the
r)]xgnetic
A.l.t't L|szkou\cz.
conclitioning
GOCFI ( 1]12!l)
(completed)
feconncction
in
the
E'.l h s
(T121'l)
lJarb.!r.!
1r'rxllnetosphere
Ill. lxl)erinlentrl sttrclicsof the slrlfltce
PaPielau'sk.t.
. r r ' l : r t r r r n illr <r ' r ' ' r l 1 \ 1 . | | - . \ r I ' l ; . l
xnglcs I 26. Dcternlinati()nof ebsoluteabtrnclanccs
nrcthoclof scxnninSal \,ltri()Lrs
of clcments in solar-flerestroLlghdrc
of enritte(llln(l fellcctcd inlxrccl rxdixSprcc
rn:rlysis of x rxy specltl pr'ovidcd l)y
tion. A nrissionof the F:Llfopcxn
the l)()lish spectromelcrsRESIK an(l
Agency NtAltS-l'lXI'lttlSS
Cfl2E)
witald Nor.osiclsk{.
DIOGI]NESS (PO3C) _
S_)lutslo'.
11U.Electronrigneticcrnissionsin the lcr
re'stlirtlcnvil1noren! gcncflllcd in thc
i(rl()spherexn(l !foposphcfc (T12Fl)LIl )| I t(t Roll.)kdchl.
A
-fLccepted in thc Twenty Third Bid
(lanuary 2002)
of 127. i\,lo(lellinll the spcctronlctric meilsurc
I 19. Applicxiionof Phescmcltsureruents
CI)Ssignalsto corrpl|ison of lreclr.renrnents of the sLlrfxceancl sul.r-oLrnclinlls
cics o[ high prccisionlicqucncy specof l\i.lrs(for thc cxpcfiment 1)FSwithin
An)1a!'l'yt:.titou'ska.
inrens('l l2L)
the lu:1rc-h,xpressolission) ancl of thc
(completed)
corDetWi xncn (fol thc cxpcriment
VIR'flS \\,ilhin thc llosettx nlissionsprcpxfrtion to thc intcfPretxti(nof exl-Icccpted in thc'Ivenry First Rid
pcrimentrl rcsults (T128) - ,l4,rili
(lanuary 2001)
Bt?cka.
120.Sluclicsof plxsrnil ttrlrrrlcnce of the
l , , r \ 4 u n i l i , f i r r !u l ( l ( al r l r r l l i r s n \ 1 i(\ r n . s nr:rgnctosphcricboUnclev lrtl'cn sions fronl :lntll)pogcnic nncl netural
projects CL(lSfFll{ encl lh"TElUlALL
soLrrccsfr()nr bolrcl of thc irrtcrna
(T l2E) -./uD Bkcki.
tionul Spxce Stxti()n ('l'I2Fl) .kjzc/
l2l. Conrplcx llnxlysis()1-25ve:lrs of ticl:Ll
.lucliDieu)icz.
ol)seffltk)ns in I)()lln(l in(l tlreif con
tinulLti()n1Lswell ls (leternrinrtionof
rDo(luluti()nof ti(lxl \\,xves in thc pc
rkrclrengc'lrom liltll'a year k) i1 \,cxri Accepted
in the Twenty Fourth Bid
(T721.) - Tt.lcrsz Chojiticki.
2002)
A
ouly
l2f. AnxlYsisof simulrteLlCoCE obscnus(mrcllccL[llcyPitf:lrnctions to arssess
ters xncl to fcfinc lhe Exrth gfttvilx- 129.Roleof the occ'anin gcnemtingi[eguIxf pe|Iud)xtions of Exl.th's lotxti()n
ti()nil fiel(l nroclcl('f12E) Jcultsz 13.
(1'
l2F.) - Al ek\.t1kler lSEcz itiski.
Ziclitiski.
130. I'Lrncllry Foudcf Spectr(xneter(PFS)
ebonrclthc Spucccr':rlil\'llrrs-Expressol
thc Llrr()peunSp.ce Agency (lSA)
t epted in thc Twenty sccond Bid
A.
thc anillvsisof scienrificxn(l technical
ouly 2001)
clele fr-omrhc orl)ir (T12E) - Aitclrz4
12J. Studv of the rLrrorul liilomctric
|llclixti()n()1'the ErIth in fcldtion to 131.Nonlinexr ilnalisysof the collisconlers
dislurl)xnccs of
the
aLlrorxl
cosnric plxsnrlL (l'O3.2) - \Y/iesltur
(Tl2F,)
rrlxflnctosplrcrc
JcDt 114na6z.
clesintcgrxti()n ol' 132.'l csts of thc hlrchverc er-rclsolirvere firr
12.i. Scenery of
(lecimctcrsizcd dusl xl.lgreflltcsin the
the projcct DENIETEIT (Tl2E) sLrfrounclinLj
of Flirliey'scomet (T12D)
AndrzcJ Rokicki.
- I'dtucl Ol)ct-c.
132. Analysis of dynamical surface pro 6. Institut fur Planerologie - EXTASE(cercessesin fhe surroundingsof Marfian
many), Design and manufactudng of
craterson the basis of data from the
measurement electronics for the proiect
mission Mars Global Surfeyon Mars
EXSTASE- Woiciecb Marczeusdi.
Odyssey and Mars Express 2003
7 . Institut fur Planetoiogie - EXTASE(Ger(T12E) - Ktz),sztof Skochi.
International
Contracts
many), Development of low level software - project EXSTASE
Wojciecb
MarczeLushi.
8 . Nationale Institute of Standards (USA),
t . Betr. Insr. F. veltraumforschung (Ausrrir). Div(lolmenr Jnd resrint Flighr
Software
for
tlte
experiment ^
MUPUIANC - M.lrek HlontL
Betr. Inst. F. Weltrar:nforschung(Austlia), EngineeriDg Support for the
MUI,US-ANCHOR Projecr - Marek
3 .SpaceOrganizationNetherlands,Imple-
mentation in HLCU the supply, control
xnd monitoring tasks dedicared for I
HLSU.Pan 1 - the design,manufacturing and fesrs of prototype hardware Piotr Orleatthi.
(Cer4 . In\riturfUrPiJnelologie. N4UpUS
many), Procurement of a series of 4
piecesof referencePEN,ELheatersfor 2 .
dre experiment MUPUS-phaseFS and
GRM - WojciecbMarczeaski.
) . Instrturfur Phn(rologie EXTAsErCer
many), Projecrand nanufacturing sensor: rnd prolre' projecr TXTASE
Vojciecb Marczeuski .
Time Transfer System GpS receiver for
long-distance time comparisons - TTS-2
CNPq-Conshello Nacional de Densev
(Brasil), Time Transfer System GpS receiver fof long-di\lan(c (rnte compilri
sorrs J.Nauracki.
Polish Contracts
Ceneral :taff of l,olish Army. Ongoing
processingoi heliogeophysi(al darJ for
predicting ladio communicatjons conot
tions, developmenr of medrodoloqy and
systems of the predictions (2 contiacts)
- Lstanklawska.
INS Ltd., Kmk6w, Auromalion of cps
observations processing for an actrve
Seodesic network AGS-PL using vast
cornputer nerwork and GpS sarellite
technology, performing a function of
geodesic network for Silesia regionn
-L.Jauo6ki.
TRANSFER
OF I(NOWLEDGE
i%
PUBLICATIONS
r Toldlnltnlbcr ofpLtblicatians ilt 2002:
3IO littcl diDg6T iD tlrcjoltnklk fi un
the scl List)
+P4Pe6 in refet?e.l ilttenntional science
.iotlnla ls ancl pl'oceedi ngs: 92
" At liclcs. Dtonogtttphr, ti porlt d utl tcuicu.
iil iitlenMlianal altd 11.1t
iot't.tl
publictltiotls: 43
' Contf ibutcd pape$ deliuere.l at
inta'rnalional ancl nationc science
confbrcncesand neetiilgs: 175 (includinll
17 illritcd tctlks .lcliucrc.l .!t tbe
it tIern,t t i on al coltfbrc t tces)
+PaPe$ subnitted.[ot' p blicatia]t itt 20a2:52
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60
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80
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Lirgoutte,F. Nlarcucci,M. Mogilevsky,Z. on(luced electricield in the Lafth's mNg\crn(\ rl(, Ll. Nikr,lr^L.ki, M. NuzJr.rclrev, net()sphere.A1t n a les Geopbysicac.
Nl. P-rrrot, J. Pickert, V. Romanov, T.
.ZIELINSKIJ,8., J.K, LATKA, Ii, ZDUNI]I(,
llonllntsova, C. T. Russcll,J- Seflankovl,
l>esecl on
.J.A.SxLrlxud,A. Skulsky,V. Snlimo\', K. GRACE-GoCE confronrxri{i)n
(lJu.
mutlrl:
rrrL.l
iimul:rtr'.l
Adtoucr'\
itl
Stxsic$'icz,
J.G.Trotillnon,Yu. YeriDol.le\',
Nlxgnelosherth/Cusp Intetl.rce. A tMles SpalccRese.lrch.
.ZIELINSKI J.B., M.S. I'errovskay:r,The
GcaPhlsicac.
.SCHILLAI( S., Boroe/iec sntellite laser l)ossibilityof the Crlibmtion/Valiclxtjonof
ringing station. Jaurnal oJ Pbysical the GOCE l)ata \\'ith the Balloon-borne
Cf.r(lionrrrcr./u///rr.'tl"/ G, od.ttt,t,tttc<
Stutlics.
.SCHILLAI( S., Determinltion of the
Borowiec SLRslelion coordinates. Joumal Invited papers delivered at the
international science
of Physical Studies.
.SCHILLdK S., E. \trnuk, Smbilityof co-orconferences:
dinxtes of the SLRstations on the basis of
LAGEOS-1and LAGEOS-2laser ranging in .BLECKIJ., Poler-cusp
es e lal>or-utory
for
2000. Pl4)sicsand Cbemish! of tbe Eartb.
studies of the phsmr and rstrophysic:rl
processes.llth Annual StudentConfer-.SCHILLAKS.,E. \/nuk, The strbiliryofthc
SLRsteti()nscoordinates deternrined from ence Veek of doctoral students 2002,
nrondrly urcs of LAGEOS-1ancLLAGEOS-2 Clnrles University in Prague, Fxculty ()i
lxser rxnliing in 1999-2001. Ptoccediltgs Mathematicsand Physics, 11-14 June
2002.
1-ltl) International Workshop on lascr
.BLDCKI
R.0tqit19.
N.
J., S.P.Savin,K. KOSSACKI,
.SCHILL.\K S., E. Vnuk, The SLRst:uions CornillaGvehrlin,
M. PJrrot,Z. Nemecek,
coordinirles dctermined fror'n monthly J. Srfr.rnkowx, R. \VRONOWSKI, J.A.
rrcs of IAGEOS-I ind LAGEOS-2laser Savrud,K. Kudelx,O. SNnblik,Lo\\'frefrnging in 1999 2001. Aduallccs in SPace quency plxsil'lil\\,lves in the polar cusp.
2002SpringNlcctingof thc AmcficanCeo
Rcsearch.
(USA),
.STANISL.VSI(A I., Z. ZBYSZYNSKI,Fore- physicalUnion,Vasbington,D.C.
28-31May 2002.
c.lstjngof dre total electroncontent at sin.BLECKIJ., S. Sxvin,H. ROTHI(AEFIL,
K.
gLc stirtion, CosrnicRcscctl'ch.
lt.
KOSSACKI,
K.
Stxsie$,icz,
.S\VIATEI( A., Applicution of dre updzrted
\\TRONOWSKI, ZNenecek, J.
lltl rnoclclfbrGPS obsefr'lltions../orrialo/' Safrankowa,I(. I(uclelx,The fole ot the
I4tysic.tl Stt!.lies.
low fr-equencyplasma wavc's in the cly
. SVI,\TEK A,, I. STANIST-AVSM, UP
nrmics of the poler cr.rsp.COSTAR Collochtinll of k)cal model of TEC during the quiLrm "Phsmx pr()cesses in the
. o l : r ru l i p : c n n l l A , r e . t I o o o C o s , , i / c nearEa[h spxcc: INTERBALLand bc
T
yoncl", Sofir (Bulgeria),5 10 FebrLrrry
2002.
.BRZEZINSKIA., Oceanicexcitationof po- .HANASZ J., H. de Feraudy,R. Schreiber,
lar motion and nutation- an overview. M.M. Mogilevsky,Auroral kilometric radi
IERSVorkshop on CombinationResearch ation as a diagnostic tool for auroral
and Global GeophysicalFluids, Municl'r plasma, German-Polish Conference on
(Germany),
PlasmaDiagnosticsfor Fusion and Appli
18-21November2002.
.BRZEZINSKIA., P.M.Mathevs,Recentacl- (arions.Creifsweld{Ccrmany'.4-6 Srpvancesin modelingthe lunisolarpenurba- tember 2002.
D., M. BZO\,)fSKI,HJ. Fahr,
tion in polar motion corresponclingto .RUCTNSKT
high frequencynutation:reporl on the dis- Helium tine dependent modeling and
cussion of the IAU Comm. 19 vC on electron ionization rate. Internalronal
Nutation.Journees2002Systemesde Ref SpaceScienceInstituteInterstellarHelium
erenceSpatio-Temporels,
Bucharest(Ro- Cone vorking Group Meeting, Berno
(Switzerland),
12-16August2002.
n ^i^), 25-29September2002.
.BZOTifSKIM., Hydrogen time dependent .SYLI/ESTERB., High ResolutionObseryatnodeling.InremationalSpaceScienceIn- tions of Solar Flares. Multi-Vavelengtlr
stitute InterstellarHelium Cone rvorking Obseryationsof Coronal Structure and
CroLlp Meeting, Berno (Switzerland), Dynamics - Yol*oh 10th Anniversary
Meeting,Kona, Hawaii (USA),20-24Janu12-16August2002.
.CoraLluni
A., M.C.De Sanclis,
G. Piccioni. ^ry,2002.
M. BLECIC{,Marsmultispectralimagerfbr .SYLVESTERJ.,l'erformanceof RESIKand
Diogeness Bragg Spectrometersaboard
subsurfacestudies. International Vork
"Exploring
Satellite,JOSO Session,1oth
MarsSurfaceand its Earth CORONAS-F
shop
(ltaly),
Mrcringof tlle Solir PhysicsSectron.
EPS:
Analogues",Sicily and Mount Etna
Solarvariability: from core to outer fron
23-25September
2002.
.CZECHO\rSKIA., Renote Sensingof the tiers,Prigue(CzeclrRepublic),9-14ScpHeliosphericBoundary.34th COSPARSci- tember 2002.
entific Assembly,Houston, Texas (USA), .\0ERNIK A.\v., Ionospheric Irregularities
10-19October2002.
and Scintillation-SpaceWeather Aspect.
)O(VII
General Assembly of EGS, Nice
.GBUREKS.,J. SYL\flESTER,
MissionLong
(France),21-26.A.pril2002.
Analysisof DistributionanclPropefliesfor
CompactX-ray SourcesObseryedby SXI .WERNIKA.\v.. High-l.titud<phsma {ur
on Yohkoh. 10th Meeting of the Solar bulence:advancedanalysismethodsand
Physics Sectioo, EPS: Solar vafiabilily: results.IRF Kirunr Colloquiurn,Kir!na
(Sweden),1-3 September2002.
from core to outel fiontiers, Prague
(CzechRepublic),9-14 September2002. .\fERNIK A.Ii/., Ionospheric iregula ties
.GRZEDZIELSKI
S.,Overview talk on basic and scintillation. COS'I 27-l rvorksirop,
aspectsof planetarytails and similar long Faro (I'ortugal),1-6 October 2002.
structuresin other Jrers of istrophysics.
Internarional Space Science Institute
Vorkshop "Physics of the Heliotail",
Berno (Switzerlxnd),5-18July 2002
APPLICATIONS
Heliogeophysical
sefvlce
I'be Spaicellcsc.ticll Ccnhc bds al
bclia!:capb.l's
ica l prcdicliolt scrL,ice,opetrtliiQ
tNitbiit tbe llobal ISESs.yslcDr
ttld is
rcspaitsi l)le.fbr tDc.tsL!le n1c tlts a n d
Pt?diclbDs o.fsoldr actiL,it)'a .l tclalcd E.n1h
W
A
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F
T
ISES
The Intemrtionrl Sp.ce IlnvironlrtentSel]/ice(ISES)is
irn ilrternltion:ll olganisation co ordinating quick exchrngc of (latx on the Sun, Exl1h,xnd llxrth's envirol'lnlent pillimeters bet\\'centhc pllrticiprting ()l)senuft)
lics. The Varsit\\' ccntre hrs u specialstxtLrs()f thc llc
gionll Vhminll Ccnler (ltVC).
SIICrcccivcs(llLlarelxyecll)y Vxrning Centctsin Boul
cler, Color-rtclo:Tokyo, Jxpxn; Sydney, Austr-ulie;
B[rssels, l]c'lgiur]r; i\,losco$',Ilussill; ancl Pfttgue, Czcch
Itepublic. A l:lrge po[ion of clxtx is receive(l dircctiy
frc>rt'tvl!-ic>r.rsinternxtional ol)servlk)ries, sUch !s
()bse rltor-io clc l'Ebrc. D;rta from P()lish obsenirtor'ies
'fhe
xre xlso colLcclcd.
rnonitotit-rgof r.l(lio wavc' proprgation conditions over l)olxnd is conlinL()uslv cxrricd oLlt $, ith the I{OS/89 ionos()nclein
Wr!rsilw.Drtx on terrestri:rlmxgneticllcl(l llcli\'tt,vilrc supplie(ll)y tlle Ccnttxl Ccophvsicxl Ol)sel'vutoryPAS in Biclsk, I,olincl.
p,Iocn
Thc IonosphericDespxtchCcntrc in llurol)c
(lDC!,) is rn initirtive of thc action COST
251 (Lnproved Qullity of lonosphericTele
IDCE IonosphericD€spatchCentre
cornmunicltionsSystentsPlxnning ltnd Op
cr:rtion)drlt operatesrt the RWC \vrrsx\\,,
in Europe
relityinllcontinLlouslyionosphcric prlilnrc
ters (ieirr rcal tinre) front el>out 30 roncr
http://$1vw cbk. waw-pl/nvc/idce.htllrl
sphericstxtionsell ovcr the rvorlcl.Fulthcrtip.cbk.waw pl (r48.81.24. 129)
rllore, dle ionosphcric cltlltacteristicsancl
their aclual trxnsicnt clistufbancesiu-c xvlil
rublc rt
the
IDCE
\v\vv/
pxge
( htlp://w\\.w.cbk. \1,urv.pl,znvc/iclce-htntl
).
Thc
rnonylltous
FTP
clireck)ty
-T ( ftp://hxydn.cbk.*.1rrv.pl/publ fqr/r$'c,/iclcc) us rvcll ls cetrlogues ol quicr and clisturl)ed
d.lys of ionosphericdisturl)iurccs
sho\\' Ihe'velue ol'ionosphericpropxg!tk)n index iul.2
ilnd iooosphcric 'I:rps of ELrr()pefront lhc sohr eclipsc <>fAugLtstll, 1999.Also lhe
COST 2i1 compLltcrprogrtnt is xvxilxltc rt this site. iVkrclels
ol c(nttinuoLls l.ll)pil:j,
k)ng-termpfcdiction of ionosphericp:lfirntetcIs,of tlte hcigltt pI'(>filc
ol clectr-onconcen g.
('os'r'251
+ Irxtion,ancl of cleternrination
of l)asicPropxgationchafucteristics,devei()ped\\,ithin the
COST 251 prollr:r]lnrc, are contained in onc softwarep:rckuge.
(J..tlditislau.skd )
llrsigram warsaw
On the basis of thc continuolts florv of clata fiont Pol.nd ancl 1ll)foxcl,SllC pLrl)lishcsx
spccialclailybulletin URSIGIL{M\vllrsNwanclit bro.dcxsrswirhin the ISES.D:rily prc'(lictions of helioge()physicalactivit)' rncl nronthlv
f o r ( c r s t su f r 1 ' r n n r r r ::(i ri o n i ,. o r r rl r r i , , n sr lr r ' , , . r g l r
out the $,oflclwith pxrticulrr cmphxsison tllc teffi
tory of I'olend rre prepllred es r.r,cll.This rvork is
cardecloul vidr Sllc clevelopeclsofirvere p:tcklrges
(an
()lT
HELGEO
aluk)ntxtic
svslcnt
heliogcophysicaldNt:rprocessing)xnd lixyJlourc
(TMSY
N system o[ prccliction of IJF colnt]tLrni
cations conditions). Vxfiolrs vcrsions of prcdic
lions rle aviilxl)le to intcfcsted conlmunicttions
profession:lls as rvell es to r'aclio lunts.
(http://w\\'w.cbk.wx\1'.pl/l\,c.lrrnrl)
(LSt1tltslauska )
14.1'1.1998,
't4.tI.,t998,12 UT
Elcctlon concentrationlimitcd arcr lr. aps xt selectedhciilhts constlLlcted\\ith PLES
inst:rntaneous
nuppinli model. Nlapsxre busedon rhc cxpcrimentnlheigl profilcs front
selected Eurofiexn sitcs. Operiti()nal r.tseof such a tool all()rvs to dcmonstmte neu
rell-timc drree-din)ensionirl
view of dte ionosphereup t() t'l'lirxintllnl
of 1.2lafeL:rnclto
.{l
]
use it fbr other pLrrposcs.
l"
S*a ao.".^ri.rg
. The R\iC/IDCE \\'cl) sen,ice (lrtlp:,fw\\N .cbl(.\\'r1q'.
pl/1rvc./iclce/) proviclt-s on linc
eccesto d:lt'rbirseof thc criticrl frequencyof F2 iotosphcric leyerfirrecastrt all uveilaltle
sitr'scommlrnicetingto IDCE. D:rily plds fof 30 stxtionsfrotn lrll <>vertlic q'o.lcl ilre Drc-
sentcclNlon{]with thcir (ligilrl verskD s:rntplc.l-2i ho.rs trhceclli;r. H.l)at (SJ-lo
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APPLICATIONS
Spacetechnology
Satellitepositioninq q)steus. Control
sjstelns witb satellite tecbnologj. Glound
diagnostks equiPment.
arsaw RIMS location withln
the EGNOS framework
consideredto be the first step to GAULEO,
the \Tarsaw RIMSand related activity forms
the bridge to future Regional GALILEO
Centre.
The \farsaw Ranging and Integrity Monitoring Station(RIMS)is
a part of the ground network of
European GeostationaryNavigation
Overlay
Seryices
(EGNOS)preparedfor land, sea
and air navigationin Europe. It
is being implemented as an
EGNOSSystemTest Bed.
The key elementof RIMSis such
location of its antennas,which
enablesgood reception of signal from EGNoS satellites.The
second key element is good
connectionof the stationsto the
EGNOS cornmunication network. For \(arsaw RIMSan accessto the oearestcommunication node is possibleby means
of fibre optics cable. Thus, a
largeamountof informationcan
be sent on line to the Mission
control centre, part of the
EGNOSground netrvork.
A number of smaller projects
and ideasare being suggestedin
order to prepareSpaceResearch
centre to host the \r'arsaw station. Step by step, the preparation is coming closer to the
stagewhen it startsto function
as a permanentbase for the Varsaw RIMS
and to establishlocal componentsof additional services of system integrity.
Sp*. t r"t"o-.rrt"tion
codesponding tasksare: the development
of complementarytools to provide support The Centre has developed technology infor local augmentationof the system(iono- frastructureneeded to manufacturesoace
(MIL-STD).
spheric corrections) as well as satellite relatedhardwaresystems
atomic time scaletransfer.SinceEGNOSis
MAS
(2,5
Enabling Space Technologies
Pdn({l f:lccrronic Circuit
-->
dcsi8ning rnd surfrcc
xsscnrl)hing Lrborltow
U'\STEItCAI),CANl design
nxl rul(n rtic nl.chnrc lool
1.5 l)) pcrioflning \r)rkshop
+
A rechnol()gicil linc for Dunufacruring
clcctronic circuits irncl coppc'r - plxtina
(ex. coppering of cxpton loil)
+
a
=
'Itnrperlrturc
tcsrcrnrcrr
fa.ili$
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Satellite Time Transfer Svstem TTS-2
TTS-2 RECEIIIERS ARE
CT]RRENTLY WORIflNG AT:
F
ii
Astrogeodynamical Observatory
(AOS), Borowiec poland, 2 rcv.
United Slates Naval Observator].
(USNO). 2 rcvBureau Internatioflal Des poids er
Measures (BIPM), 4 rcv.
Semiconductor Physics tostitute
(SPI), Lithuania, 2 rcv.
National Institute of Standards (NIS),
Egypt, 1 rcv.
Observatorio Naval Buenos Aires
(ONBA), Argentifla, I rcv.
Swiss Office of Metrology, (SOM),
Bern, I rcv,
Observatoire des Cote d'Azur (OCA) .
France, 1 rcv.
Mairl Office for Mesures (GUM),
Warsaw , 2 rcv.
Institute of Cornmunication (IL),
Warsaw, Poland, 2 rcv.
Central Iaboratory of the polish
Telecom (CBR), Warsaw, poland,
1 rcv.
Military Center for Metrology,
Zielonka, Poland, 1 rcv.
National Institute of Standards and
Technology (MSI), UsA , 1 rcv.
Centro Nacional de Metrologia,
(SENACYT), Panama, I rcv.
Bundesamt fur Eich und
Vermesungeswessen (BEV), Austria,
1 rcv.
Obseryatorio Nacional ON&I
TTS-2 feceiver and its temperaturestabilized antenna at the BIPM.
Astrogeodynamical Observatorv.
SpaceResearch Centre,
Polish Academy of Sciences
Borowieq P.O. 62-035 K6t'rik,
?oland
ARIIFICIAL
SATELLITES
In 2002the SpaceResearchCentrecontin- of the Space ResearchCaintreof polish
ued to publish a scienrific quafterly Aftifi- Academy of Sciencesin Varsaw. poland.
ci6l SaEllites, tbe Journal of Planetary Ge- The Editorial Office is affiliared with rhe
odesl.The joumal intendsto be an interna- SpaceResearchCentre with !tr. Pachelski
tional geodetic and geodynamicforum of as the ManagingEditor and M. Gadomski
pape6 on theory and applicationof space as the Secretaryof the EdirorialOffice.
technologiesand spaceexperimentsto po- Volume 37 of 2002consistsof four issues.It
sitioning on Earth and to studies of the contains13 papersby 12 intemationaland
Earth'sgravitationalfield, geoid and rides, 6 Polish authors.All papersdeal with funas well as of the Earth'srotatioo and refer- damental problems of geodesy and
encesystems.In the lastyear scientific,edi- geodynamics,including the rheory and aptorial and formal levelsofpublished papers plicationsof GPS and GNSSposirioning
were improved. The scientific level is (Scheferand Grafarend,Tyranowska,and
mostly due to our Authors, among whom Teunissen),the theory of Earth's rotation
there are some scientistswell known in the (Eroshkin, Pashkevich and Brzeziiski),
world geodetic community, as well as to geoporential modelling (zielifski and
the reviewers,who pay much attention in Petrovskaya,Vershkov),deformationanaltheir criticism to high quality of papers. ysis of reference frames (Krumm aod
Since 2000 the Editorial Board consisrsof Grafarend),laser ranging (Medvedskyand
the following members: F. Barlier of the Suberlak,KuZmicz- Cie5lakand Schillak),
Observatoirede la Cote d'Azur, Grasse, satellite motion (Antonopoulos and
France; H. Drewes of the Deutsches Antonopoulou),Eanh'stides(Bogusz).Out
Geodadsches
Forschungsinstitut
in Munich, of 300 copies printed, 107 are disrributed
Ge.many;Ya. S. Yatskiv of the Main Astro- by intemational subsc prion and library
nomical Obsevatoryof t}te NationalAcad- exchangechannels,aod 52 to polish recipiemy of Sciences of Ukraine in Kiev, ents. A number of copies is distributedto
Uknine; S. Oszczak of the Varmia and our conributofs: authofs, reviewers and
MasuriaUniversiry in Olsztyn, Poland; E. membersof the Edito.ial Board.
Wnuk of the Adam Mickiewicz University
(ty. Pacbelski)
in Poznaf. Poland: and A. Brzezi.lskiand
J.K. Latka,both
*.5:'J'":::"
EDUCATION AND
OUTREACH
Tbe SpaceRcsearcbCentre pAS co-operates
ullb uniLEtsiliesin studcnts training 6ncl
makesits labs auailable.fortbeir tab
practice and graduation uD/.b. Tbe
instihde staff is ctctiuein science
ptpmotien and familiarises tbe general
public uitb culrent eoentsin tbe Solar
SJ)stelnand spacee^ploration as uell as
wit h prac tica I appl icat ions.
-
PhD studies in the Space Research Centre
I an"-".OOO"tnr.t"*"r*..uE
in the field ofspace s6iences
and satellite tec-furology
in Polan4 initiated doctoral
studies in co-oDeration with the
PhD school of-the Insritute of
ceophysics PAS
Cufi'ent
Profiiles
. Satellite geodesy
and geodynanics
.Interplanetary plasma
and space weathef
. Solar s'.stem exDloration
and space technblogy
. Physics of the Solar Svstem
and its environment
AdveitisemenrPosler
Acad.-ic
L"tur.s by sRc
4-
\wars.w Universjty.Facuhyof physics
Depanmentof Ceophysics.
. J.Blechi - Geomqgnetisu - pbtsics
of . A. Btzeziiski, M. Rlttkoashal _ Sateltite
nlagl,retosphere and cosmic
Seodes!and grauimerrJ,,- Warsaw Uni,
scientists:
versity,Facultyof Physics,Depaflmentof
Geophysics;
AJureuicz, M.Rataj - Pbysical basesofremote sensing- \S{^rsawUniversity,Faculty of Geographyand RegionalStudies.
P. Kopershi: Ihe linuc ststem aclninistlotioz - High Schoolof Applied Informatics
:rnd Management
S. Scbi ak - Observational metbods in
geocletkastlonom)l- A. MickiewiczUniversity in Poznari. Faculty o[ l,hysics.
DepanmentofPhysicsofEanh and Atmosphere;
Scienrific I)icnic 2002
G. Sita$ki - Celestial tuecbanics, Wars u,/
Unive$ify, Department of Physics,Faculty of Astronomy.
ectures for the g€neral public
K. Ziolkowski- Astronomy -'fhe Warsaw and training s€ssions for specialFamilyAllianceInstituteof Higher Educaists:
t1()n,
. K. Ziolkowski - Theory of the Evolution of
the Universe and Erplorution of the Solar
s),Jreri-Technical Universityof warsaw,
Facultyof Power and AeronauticalEngi
In 2002 the SRC scientists delivered
about 25 public lecturesand organized
one tmining sessionfor professionals.
neeflng.
Th."."
"..p."r.i"ion,
In 2002,7 SRCscientistswere superyisorsof SRCparticipated in the Scientific Picnic,
13 Ph.D. theses,and 6 researche$super- organisedannuallyat the New City Markel
vised 9 Mastertheses.
Square in Warsaw. The programme
involved the following presentationsby
the SRCscientists:
glvleliis:
Satellitetechniquesin archaeology,
Spaceechoesof earthquakes- project
In 2002,SRCscientistsprep.rred43 review Demeter,
rcpons, includingi
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observationsof flora (in co-opemtion
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. 8 refereereports on SCSRgrant applica- with tlle Remote Sensingof Environment Laboratory,Facultyof Geography
lrons
and RegionalStudies,Wir6aw Univer. 32 refereereportsof anicles,other publisity),
caoonsanclgrants.
'Lifein the Universe- post-competilive
exhibition of artisticworks.
RC in the media
News breaksof dre Polish PressAgencyabout 6o
TV and radio programmes- abort 180
Interviewsand pressinformation- about
60
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geophysics.
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Prof. dr hab.JERZYJANKOVSKI Isrirure
of
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of the Scientific Coun_
cil elected in Noveflrber ZOO2
Prof. clr hab. ANDRZEJJURE!(/ICZ_ SRC
I)r'ofLll lr.rlr.ROBERTR. CAL\ZKA
Prof. dr hab. ZBIGNIE\7KIOS - SRC
Instituteof PhysicspAS- cbairtnarl
Prof. dr h:rb. BARBARAKoLACZEK_ SRc
Prof. clr l'rab.\0LODZI]VIIERZ
BARAN_
Doc. dr' hab. VIESLA.\(/KOSEK- SRC
lnstitute of Geodesy,Varmia ancl l!r:rzury
Dr N4ALCORZATA
Unive$ity in Olsztyn- Ltice-cbairntul
KROLTKO\ysK.A
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Institureof ceophysics pAS LFWANDOW5KT
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uacc-cbairtllan
Nlesures,Sevres,France
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Doc. dr hab.JAN K. LATKA- SRC
SllC - sacrctalllof. dr hab ADAM LYSZKO\fiCZ- SRC
Doc. cir IIab. MAITEI(I]ANASZKIEVICZSRC
l'rof'. clr hab..MESLA.\0MACEK- SRC
Dr N1ACIEJ
IIZO\flSKI- SRC
l,rof. HELMUTMORITZ- Technical
Prof. dr' hab. TADEUSZCHOJNICIfl_ SRC University,Graz,Austria
l,rlt. ANGIOLETTACO|IADINI - Insu(rro DI JOLANTANASTULA_ SRc
di FisicNdcllo Spxzi()Interplanet:rrioCNll, Prof. clr hab. BOGDAN NEy Insrirureof
Ronu, Itily
Geodesyand Canography,\farsaw
Doc. dr hab. I(A.TARZYNA
DABRO\7SKA_ Doc. ch hab. PA\flELOBERC- SRC
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Prof. clr hab.JAN OL4DZKI _ Deparrment
Cx{ogrxphy, \Vxrsx\\,
of Ceogmphy,WarsawUniversity
Prof. ch hal>.\(/OJCIECHDZIEMBO\(/SKINicolasCopernicusAstrondniell Cenrer I'ruf.dr hrh. STA\ISLA\(/OSZCZAKSRC
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Prc>f.dr hab. STANISLA\vCRZI1DZIELSKI l'rt't.rlr h:rlr.WOJCIFCH
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DOC,<Ir'h:rb. BARBARAPOPIELA!/SKAI,rof. clr hxb. KRZYSZTOFHAMAN
SRC
InstitLrteol' Geophysics,Varsxlv
D o c . , l rl r : r l rR O M A N AR A T K T E \ ( / I-C Z
Universiry,
Poland
SRC
Doc. dr hal).JAN HANASZ- SRC
Prol dr hab. JERZY ROGOI(/SKI Instituteof Higher Geodesyand Geodetic
Astronomy,Varsaw TechnicalUniversity,
\Varsaw,Poland
- Max-Planck Prof. dr hab. ZBIGNIEWKIOS
Dr HELMUTROSENBAUER
Institut fiir Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau,Dircctor
phone (48-22)851 1810,
Germany
- (48-22) 840 3'166 ext. 327;
Doc. dr hab. MILOST.AWARUTKOT,)7SKA
f^x (4a-2D A4O313"1
SRC
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- lnstitute
Proi dr hab.JAN RYCHLEWSKI
for Basic Problems of Technology PAS, Doc. dr hab. MAREKBANASZKIEMCZ
'Warsaw
Deput! director for science
phone (4a-2D a40 37 66 ext' 325;
Prof. dr hab. MAREKSADO\7SKIf^x (4A-22)a4O3131
A. SoltanInstitutefor NuclearProblems,
Swierk
Ms, TERESATAMCH
Doc. dr hab. MAREKSARNADepuq) director for frnances
N. CopernicusAstronomicalCenterPAS, p]i'ot\e (4A-22) a51,1717,
'\va$aw
(48-22) 840 37 66 ext. 32a;
- SRC fax Ua-22) 840 3131
Doc. dr hab. MAREKSTARKO\gSKI
Prof. dr hab. GRZEGORZSITARSKI- SRC
- Swedislr Dr KRZYSZTOFZIOLKOITSKI
Dr KRZYSZTOFSTASIE\WICZ
Scientific Secretary
Instituteof SpacePhysicsIRF, Uppsala,
phone (48-22)851 1806,
Sweden
(48-22) 840 37 66 exr. 324;
Doc. dr hab. BARBAM SYLVTSTERfax (48-22) 840 3131
SRC
- SRC
Doc. dr hab.JANUSZSYL\UESTER
Prol dr hab. ANDRZEJVERNIK - SRC
DL.,o.i"tuourd
l'rof. dr hab. ED\flIN \UNUK BRZEZINSKI
Prof. dr hab. ALEKSANDER
A. IvlickiewiczUniversity,Poznarl
Prof. dr hab. PIOTR VOI-A.I(SKI - varsaw Prof. dr hab. ANDRZEJJUREMCZ
TechnicalUniversity
Dr eng. MIROSLAWRATAJ
Prof. dr hab.JANUSZB. ZIELINSKI SRC
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CONTENTS
03 ..........SUMMARY2002
CAPITAI
05 ..........KNO\O'LEDGE
1.5..........KEY PROCESSES
46 .....,....TMNSFEROF KNOTqLEDGE
70 ......,...SCIENTIFICCOUNCILAND DIRECTORS
Edited by:
KMYSZTOF ZIOLKOITSKI
TechnicalEditor:
EDYTA LISIECKA
Photos: NASA, ESAand SRCPAS
Arkuszy drukarskich - 6,67 ; Arkuszy wydawnczych - 5,33
Publikacjg wykonano na papierze bezchlorowym POLARIS100 gr.
Okladkg wykonano na papiefle kredowanym Magnomatt 200 gr.
Sklad: Edyta Lisiecka
Druk i oprawa: Zesp6l Wydawniczy CBK PAN
00-71,6w^rsz^w^. ul. Barwcka 18a

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