Jüdischer Ordnungsdienst in Occupied Kraków during the years 1940-1945
collaborating with the occupiers. The collaboration of Jews with Germans during World
War II is, however, a separate topic of study currently under development.
In the opinion of witnesses, the Jewish police remained a criminal force. Neither
the inhabitants of the Kraków ghetto nor the prisoners of the Nazi concentration camp
in Płaszów had any conﬁdence in OD ofﬁcers. In the eyes of their fellow Jews, the enforcers were accomplices to crimes committed in the ghetto and camp. Some OD members, however, avoided performing their duties during deportation by adopting a passive
attitude, which their co-religionists did not understand. Also among the OD were people
who collaborated with the Jewish conspiracy operating at ZAL Płaszów, including the
Lieberman brothers and Dawid Liebling.
It is difﬁcult to evaluate the performance of the order-keeping force, which only
performed the commands of the Judenrat and, with time, of the German authorities. The
OD was given tasks requiring knowledge of the Jewish language, contact with other
Jews, and force. The OD-men were probably called in as an auxiliary group when German ofﬁcers were lacking for the implementation of a task.
In the years 1945-1955, about 40 Jews were accused of collaborating with the enemy
before Polish national courts. Three-quarters of them were sentenced. Several former
Jewish policemen were judged by the SCC in Kraków. However, most of the OD-men
died in December 1943 in Płaszów; there is very little information about the fate of the
others, especially since many Jews emigrated beyond the borders of Poland at the war’s
end. The trials of former OD-men before the SCC proved only that according to Polish
law, one could not be punished for belonging to the OD.
AINR MC – Archives of the Institute of National Remembrance, documents of the Main Commission
for the Investigation of Nazi Crimes in Poland
AINR MC, DCINC – Archives of the Institute of National Remembrance, documents of the Main
Commission for the Investigation of Nazi Crimes in Poland; the District Commission for the Investigation of Nazi Crimes
AJHI – Archive of the Jewish Historical Institute, Warszawa
CMA – Kraków Municipal Administration
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