Hacking, cracking and viruses

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Hacking, cracking and viruses
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TECHNIKI ZAGRAZAJACE
SIECIOM KOMPUTEROWYM
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( hacking, cracking and viruses )
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Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
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6. Metody autoryzacji
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8. Wirusy komputerowe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
8.1. Rodzaje wirusów . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Nosiciele wirusów . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
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9. Nowoczesne metody ataków na systemy IT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
10. Strategie obrony przed atakami . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
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12. Szyfrowania w poszczególnych warstwach modelu OSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
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4
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__________________________________________________________________________________________
6
Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
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__________________________________________________________________________________________
7
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Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
Wszystkie punkty styku naszej sieci z sieciami potencjalnie uznawanymi za niebezpieczne
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__________________________________________________________________________________________
8
Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
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szczególnej ochronie
- systemu operacyjnego stacji roboczej
- do zasobów sieciowych
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Poziom 3 - Zabezpieczenie aplikacji
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ka
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__________________________________________________________________________________________
9
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Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
- tabel
- widoków
+ ,-
-
formularzy
raportów
procedur
funkcji
wyzwalaczy
pól
Poziom 6 - Aktywna i pasywna ochrona sieci
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Poziom 5 - Ochrona obiektów baz danych
- FW (rodzaje : SPF, SPI, BL7F, BAF, DDR, NAT, PAT, Proxy)
ow
odpowiednio zakwalifikowanych pakietów.
an
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E67S1R2<52T;/EL7:FJAJD24,@US1R2<56RD2J467:9:6V.0/D(/E(67:FW>7>>7:[email protected](<5/GY68Z6O2<=/E67:[Z6G\@]32<=/E6Y7^6G;2K2<=/(E(67
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D2(97:GY2<57:K2[Lo:3,pD(T2<k7:K2JG;AIJD2(97:G2L<57:K2a12([email protected][/D(3,7:4AJo:3pQDLT2<57>0G;AIsD2(97:G2<57>?467:96[6;[email protected],Z/97
o:3,p(DTY2<57:K2JG;AIJD2(97:G2<57:K2L[/D(3,7:4AJt=u^en[Ai:[email protected](2<5E6O(/([K(3,AL1P[vxw5y*/DQ37:4A[1L3,[email protected](O2T;AJ<=/34,@d<5P
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- IDS (rodzaje : NIDS, HIDS)
dr
uk
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/:@/OQpL<~EQ/a4P4,@d7:FHO2FJ1A(@7S3,2<kPc64/FJ2L9:BPEEL7:K2c1L3,B:7S96;<5DB68/T;/QE(6;/[email protected]]PLFi7qB:/(KQ32(i7:E62LF€V } [email protected]:[email protected]
FJ2i7:FJPc1R2D(B67:GY68jkEQ/kDQB:6;/T8/>,C97^E(/a46Y7|966RDB:6;/T;/>,C97=E(/ `(2_N9:67V } [email protected]]7:[email protected]{@d2(3,AS>,C9k4PL4,@7:F
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- AV (rodzaje : skanery, monitory, szczepionki, sumy)
pio
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E(/59:6;CKTYPFHFJ2E6{@2(32<=/E6;As47S3<57|3p<W1G6OpL<5[12([email protected]„>,/[email protected]]/9,>632QIL29:BP(9`V:…†13,B:P(1/D(OQA%<5PO(3,P(968/
2D(1R2<=67:DE69`J4PKE(/:@]AL3‡<k4O(/B:A:>,C9:P(9`JEQ/k2QIR7S9E2_j5<=6;3,AR4/([Q32(I/O(/59:B:PaO2E(6;/[email protected]]32N>,/b4NO(67:K2[L13,2(K(3,/([email protected]
12DL7,>FcA:>C52O(3,7:_G2E7qB:/D(/E6;/[email protected]:B:C97^B:/6YEQZ7:O2<=/(EP(9:`JD(/EP9`„>,/Oc6R6EZ2(3FcA:>C53,p(i:EPLFJ6FJ7|@2D(/(Fa6
B:/6;[email protected]|37:4N2<=/E7=24N2(IPV } O(/E7S3,Pq>,/OL2cE(/>,1324,@4B7^132K(3,/FJPJ<=6;3,AR42<57=4NT;Ai:C5DL2J41L3/<=DB:/EL68/kEQ2L_NE6OpL<
D(/EP(9`c9:BPJEQ6Y7MFa/a<D(/ELP9`„>/O67=4C5E(/5E(6;9`aB:/16Y4/E7=4BO(2DG6Y<5P(9`a13,2K(3/FJp<WG;AIJD2O(ARFJ7:[email protected]<JV
- QoS (rodzaje : CoS, ToS, DSCP, ICR, ECR, RSVP, NBAR, RED)
za
ka
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ko
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__________________________________________________________________________________________
10
Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
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11
Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
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__________________________________________________________________________________________
12
Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
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__________________________________________________________________________________________
13
Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
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__________________________________________________________________________________________
14
Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
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0. /2143656798:7:;2<7>=4;@?A5'/;Cº:DF;OI:Gl8:79<?A5'7>/2MN7>5'JEDFBHM¶?A1l»70Q
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__________________________________________________________________________________________
15
- scanning
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__________________________________________________________________________________________
16
Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
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na warstwie L3
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17
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Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
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__________________________________________________________________________________________
18
Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
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__________________________________________________________________________________________
19
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20
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__________________________________________________________________________________________
21
ia
Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
ian
8. Wirusy komputerowe
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__________________________________________________________________________________________
22
ia
Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
ian
8.1 Rodzaje wirusów :
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__________________________________________________________________________________________
23
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Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
ian
4. Wirusy makrosów (macroviruses)
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__________________________________________________________________________________________
24
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Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
i r
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__________________________________________________________________________________________
25
Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
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Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
METODY i SKUTKI
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METODY
OCHRONA
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__________________________________________________________________________________________
30
Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
*,+-/./01-32465(78-37195 :7;.3<=2
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__________________________________________________________________________________________
31
Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
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Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
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33
Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
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34
Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
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Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
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__________________________________________________________________________________________
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Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
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__________________________________________________________________________________________
40
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Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
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Podsumowanie
• !"
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__________________________________________________________________________________________
41
Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
,.-0/,2143-057685
SEG.
!
"#%$'&)( *+&)(
9:3.-0/;
LOGOWANIE
Klient Microsoft Network
zaszyfrowane
(SMB/CIFS)
Klient Novell Netware
tekst jawny
VPN
tekst jawny
VPN
tekst jawny
VPN
tekst jawny
SSL/VPN
tekst jawny
Kerberos/VPN
Klient WEB (HTTP)
zaszyfrowane
Klient FTP
tekst jawny
Klient MAIL (SMTP, POP3)
tekst jawny
tekst jawny
S-MIME/SSL/VPN
Klient NEWS (NNTP)
tekst jawny
tekst jawny
SSL/VPN
Klient TELNET
tekst jawny
tekst jawny
Kerberos/VPN
tekst jawny
tekst jawny
Kerberos/VPN
zaszyfrowane
zaszyfrowane
--
tekst jawny
tekst jawny
VPN
tekst jawny
tekst jawny
VPN
Klient dBASE (BDE)
brak
tekst jawny
VPN
Klient Paradox (BDE)
zaszyfrowane
tekst jawny
VPN
Klient MS Access (BDE)
zaszyfrowane
tekst jawny
VPN
Klient InterBase (BDE)
zaszyfrowane
tekst jawny
VPN
Klient SQL Server
zaszyfrowane
zaszyfrowane(*)
VPN
Klient Oracle Server
zaszyfrowane
tekst jawny
VPN
Klient IBM DB2
zaszyfrowane
tekst jawny
VPN
Klient MySQL Server
tekst jawny
tekst jawny
VPN
zaszyfrowane(*)
Kerberos
tekst jawny
VPN
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zaszyfrowane
uk
dr
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VPN
Klient Microsoft Terminal
Klient PROXY
ka
tekst jawny
zaszyfrowane
Klient GOPHER
za
METODY
ZABEZPIECZANIA
Klient NFS
Klient RLOGIN,
RSH, RCP
Klient SSH
BAZY
DANYCH
DANE
an
INTERNET
zaszyfrowane
(NCP)
ow
LAN
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oz
po
ws
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ch
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15.1 ian
ia
15. Dodatki
Klient PostgreSQL Server
__________________________________________________________________________________________
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Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
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ia
15.2 Architektury bezpiecznych sieci korporacyjnych:
- w/g Cisco
i r
oz
po
ws
ze
ch
n
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<3184G/:,4-,#1>H34I(/&1!,<G#61
projektowaniu
bezpiecznych
sieci
komputerowych.
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4141;,#1(>/G-,1/&<;N Enterprise EdgeP M!+8<3Q&!$<-,#HM()8-(>I(R7J3QH
dr
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telekomunikacyjnych (SP Edge).
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S -318 !M8K34I(011+1!?T()9ON Enterprise CampusP (>1+8<,#E!L
- UV#W1X<YQZ:W*V#[\]_^#X`ba#X#W*Z#c#[email protected] Building)
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e:[-oQl_foh Core)
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e%h Management)
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- UV#W1X<Y#\lki-U%oQc#V#`mec#o
e^#V#Y
[email protected]@v:V*W:^#ei\c1l_iw#`ba#oQnc#[email protected][V#`xZfgh Extranet)
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[email protected]@d\iJV#c#o
[email protected]#[email protected]*Vh E-commerce)
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- UV#W1X<Y[=o[email protected]<[email protected]@q#YQZ1fgh WAN)
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- UV#W1X<YQZ:Y
[email protected]#UX1\V#`mec#Z1fgh ATM/FrameRelay)
- UV#W1X<YQZ:Y
[email protected]#[\4e`xfw#`bXK[-Y
X<q:tc\lkiJc#l\uV*`Z1fgh ISP)
- UV#W1X<YQZ:Y
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[email protected]#Z1fgh PSTN)
‚„ƒ*…K†C‡ˆ_‰ŠCˆ@‹Oƒ#Œ„2‡Ž…T‚;‘x’”“@‰<Ž@ˆ•C‡‰K–<Œ—‰K˜•OŒŽ™Oƒ#–<š#ˆ@+›œœ‡O™Oƒ<+žƒ#ŒTŸ +›œM __________________________________________________________________________________________
43
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Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
ian
- w/g RedHat
dr
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Architektura firmy !"$#%&#'&()+*&(,.-/01#2&(3
4#
sieciach korporacyjnych. Jest ona zalecanym $5#26+71#2988$+3+:+#%;<$#2&#
komputerowych opartych o system operacyjny Linux. =*5$#2>[email protected]!&+(A*'@B&1(
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$++05;.*';A<$#2&#%&1()E WEB, FTP, DNS, NFS, NIS, DHCP, SMTP, POP3, IMAP)
H&$30&+7;!5#[email protected] Linux WS)
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serwery stron WWW (WEB)
serwery plików (FTP)
serwery nazw (DNS)
serwery poczty (SMTP, POP3, IMAP)
-
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__________________________________________________________________________________________
44
Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
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!"$#%&'%(
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15.3 ow
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po
ws
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ch
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- tradycyjnych
za
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ko
pio
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nia
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dr
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- w/g Cisco ( Industrial Ethernet )
__________________________________________________________________________________________
45
ian
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15.4 ia
Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
*.key - Private Key (klucz prywatny certyfikatu [text] - Linux)
*.crt - Internet Security Certificates X509 (certyfikat [text]- Linux)
*.pem - Certificate PEM (certyfikat lub klucz prywatny [text] - Linux)
*.ca - Encoded Files X509 (certyfikat - Linux)
*.509 - Encoded Files X509 (certyfikat - Linux)
*.csr - Certificate Signing Request (kandydat na certyfikat [text] - Linux)
*.crl - Certificate
text] - Linux)
%&('()+*-,/.102)+3546027.8:92027.1,)+;=<>)+?2,[email protected]*(A*(&CB. @D=0:E(,/.1F+<HG
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*.p12 - PKCS #12 Certificate (osobisty certyfikat [binarny] z kluczem prywatnym Linux/Windows)
*.pfx - Personal Information Exchange (osobisty certyfikat [binarny] z kluczem prywatnym Linux/Windows)
*.apf - Acrobat Personal Information Exchange (osobisty certyfikat [binarny] z kluczem
prywatnym - Adobe Acrobat)
*.p7 - PKCS #7 Certificate (osobisty certyfikat - Linux)
*.p7s - PKCS #7 Signed Certificate (osobisty certyfikat - Linux)
*.usr - Certificate X509 (osobisty certyfikat z kluczem prywatnym - Linux)
pio
wa
nia
,
dr
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*.cer - Cetryficate X509 [DER lub BASE64] (certyfikat [binarny lub text] - Linux/Windows)
*.fdf - Acrobat Data Exchange (certyfikat [binarny] - Adobe Acrobat)
*.der - DER Encoded Binary Files X509 (certyfikat [binarny] - Linux/Novell)
*.b64 - BASE64 Encoded Files X509 (certyfikat [text] - Novell)
*.req - Request Certificate (kandydat na certyfikat - Windows)
*.p7b - PKCS #7 Certificate (osobisty certyfikat [binarny] bez klucza prywatnego Windows)
*.spc - PKCS #7 Cryptographic Message Syntax Standard (osobisty certyfikat [binarny] bez
klucza prywatnego - Windows)
*.key.db - Key Pair Files (baza danych kluczy prywatnych certyfikatów - Novell)
*.cer.db - Certificate Files (baza danych certyfikatów - Novell)
*.sst - Microsoft Serialized Certificate Store (magazyn certyfikatów seryjnych - Windows)
*.stl - Certificate Trust List (lista zaufania certyfikatów - Windows)
za
ka
z
ko
*.pgp - Pretty Good Privacy
*.gpg - GNU Privacy Guard
*.sig - plik podpisany elektronicznie GPG
*.asc - plik podpisany elektronicznie "clearsign" GPG
__________________________________________________________________________________________
46
18.
i r
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po
ws
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ch
n
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10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
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(parametry, ustawienia)
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komputerowy (zasilacze |J;k60},R6k;=,*9!*;=~o+C,;+!/ €},3-:-9o/0*-,5b6;hD
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9.
Schematy topologii fizycznej (L1 - warstwa fizyczna modelu OSI)
Schematy topologii logicznej $&%"')("*+-,./0*+2143-576+)89-:-;=<?>@ ACBED
Schematy adresacji sieciowej (L3 - warstwa sieciowa modelu OSI)
Lista osób odpowiedzialnych za poszczególne elementy sieci oraz sposoby kontaktu z
nimi
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Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
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zainstalowanymi pakietami serwisowymi i korekcyjnymi
Dokumentacja producenta serwera baz danych
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Dyski CD z aktualnym oprogramowaniem instalacyjnym klienta i serwera baz danych
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ponadto dla serwerów baz danych :
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Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
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ADO - ActiveX Data Object
ADS - Active Directory Services (Windows 2000/2003 Server)
ASP - Active Server Page
ATM - Asynchronous Transfer Mode
ATM VPN - ATM Virtual Private Network (L2)
AV - AntiViruse
BDE - Borland Database Engine
BL7F, BAF - Basic Application Filter
CA - Certificate Authority
CGI - Common Gateway Interface
CHAP - Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
CIFS - Common Internet File System
CoS - Class of Service (L2)
CPE - LAN + DMZ
DAO - Data Access Object
DDR - Dynamic Document Review
DMZ - Demilitarized Zona (public services : HTTP, FTP, DNS, ...)
DSCP - Differentiated Services Codepoint Field
DSO - Dynamic Shared Object
ECR - Egress Commited Rate
EIB - Enctypted In Band Network Management
FAP - Firewall Authentication Proxy
FR - Frame Relay
FR VPN - Frame Relay Virtual Private Network (L2)
FW - Firewall
GPG - GNU Privacy
HIDS - Host IDS
ICR - Ingress Commited Rate
IDS - Intrusion Detection Systems
IOS - Internetworking Operating System (Cisco)
IP VPN - IP Virtual Private Network (L3)
ISAPI - Internet Information Server API
iSCSI - Internet SCSI (SCSI over TCP/IP)
JSP - JavaScript Server Page
Kerberos L1 - OSI Layer 1 (warstwa fizyczna)
L2 - OSI
L3 - OSI Layer 3 (warstwa sieciowa)
L4 - OSI Layer 4 (warstwa transportowa)
L5 - OSI Layer 5 (warstwa sesji)
L6 - OSI Layer 6 (warstwa prezentacji)
L7 - OSI Layer 7 (warstwa aplikacji)
LDAP - Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
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Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
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MAC - Media Access Control
NAS - Network Attached Storage
NAT - Network Address Translation
NBAR - Network-Based Application Recognition
NCP - Netware Core Protocol
NDS - Novell Directory Services (Netware 4.x/5.x/6.x)
NFS - Network File System
NIDS - Network IDS
NSAPI - Netscape Server API
NSS - Netware Storage Service
NTFS - NT File System
ODBC - Open Database Connectivity
OOB - Out of Band Network Management
OTP - One Time Password
P2P - Peer-To-Peer
PAP - Password Authentication Protocol
PAT - Port Application Translation
PGP - Pretty Good !
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PHP - Hypertext Preprocessor
PKCS - Public Key Cryptographic Standards
PKI - Public Key Infrastructure
PKS - Public Key System
PSK - Pre-Shared Key
PWLAN - Public WLAN
PVC - Permament Virtual Circuits
QoS - Quality of Service
RADIUS - Remote Access Dial-In User Scheme (zdalne uwierzytelnienia i rozliczania)
RDO - Remote Data Object
RSVP - Reservation Protocol
S/MIME - Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail 1(2.
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Samba - SMB/CIFS (UNIX i Linux)
SAN - Storage Area Network
SMB - Server Message Block
SMBS - Server Message Block Signing
SNMP - Simple Network Management Protocol
SPF - Simple Packet Filter
SPI - Stateful Packet Inspection
SSH - Secure SH
SSL - Secure Sockets Layer
STP - Spanning Tree Protocol
SVC - Switched Virtual Circuits
TACACS - Terminal Access Controller Access Control System
TLS - Transport Layer Security
ToS - Type of Service (L3)
WLAN - Wireless LAN
WWAN - Wireless WAN
VLAN - Virtual LAN
VPN - Virtual Private Network (S2S i RA)
YP/NIS - Network Information System (UNIX i Linux)
__________________________________________________________________________________________
50
Dariusz Wojdas – Hacking. cracking and viruses___________________________________________________
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Dudek Andrzej: )*,+(-/.102*,354/.1627098 , Read Me, Warszawa 1994
tylko wirusy, Helion, Gliwice 1998
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Andrzej:
BDCFEHG,<JIK NiePisanie
wirusów i antywirusów, Read Me, Warszawa 1998
A hacker’s guide to protecting your
Internet
site
and
network,
SAMS 1997
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Internet. Agresja i Ochrona, LM,N,M
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Konferencja i seminaria:
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\5V]<A^,O(_`[email protected],<P;]K Building SAFE Networks, Seminarium Cisco Systems, Warszawa 2002
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k$*,e,i,.1gJlnmDgPfR-/.1gJoTfhgTl,0hp14*0d.9gToT.9c,4qghkrc , Konferencja Cisco
:sEXPO,
<[email protected]>
BDtr=?Warszawa
CQ_`<PVuQR^$=]>2003
K v gPfR-/.1gToPfhgTl,0hp94qc b5w$x/y , Konferencja Cisco EXPO, Warszawa 2003
v gAfR-/.9gToAfhgJl0hpR4c0d.1gJoT.$+Tc,z-/7pRg
6dc,4(8$oJ{ , Seminarium Symantec Polska,
Kontkiewicz
Andrzej:
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Wojdas Dariusz: v Problem Roku 2000, Konferencja MSWiA, Opole 1999
Wojdas Dariusz: gAfR-/.9gToPfhgTl0hpR4c018$0hp9gTz‰š,4¢¡J£,¤ Konferencja SafeNet, Jesenik (CZ) 2002
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www.BezpieczenstwoIT.pl –
www.wojdas.24x7.pl – Encyklopedia Administratora Systemu Informatycznego
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