EU GeoCapacity – Towards a Europe

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EU GeoCapacity – Towards a Europe
Z. geol. Wiss., Berlin 36 (2008) 4–5: 303 – 320, 8 Abb., 2 Tab.
EU GeoCapacity – Towards a Europe-wide GIS of CO2 Emittants and
Storage Sites
Das EU-Projekt GeoCapacity – ein europaweites GIS mit CO2-Emittenden und
-Speichermöglichkeiten
EU GeoCapacity – opracowanie GIS’u o europejskim zasiegu w zakresie emitentów i miejsc skladowania CO2
BIRGIT WILLSCHER (Hannover), FRANZ MAY (Hannover), RADOSLAW TARKOWSKI (Kraków), BARBARA ULIASZ-MISIAK
(Kraków) & ADAM WÓJCICKI (Warszawa)
Key words: EU GeoCapacity project, carbon dioxide, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), Geographic Information
System (GIS), CO2 emittants and storage sites, saline aquifers, hydrocarbon and coal fields, Poland, Germany, area of
Szczecin (Stettin)
Abstract
In the EU project GeoCapacity a Geographic Information System (GIS) will be developed, resting upon the idea of Carbon Capture
and Storage (CCS). The GIS database of GeoCapacity contains thematic layers of natural and industrial CO2 emission sources, saline
aquifers, hydrocarbon and coal fields, gas and fuel underground storage sites, potential injection points, gas and oil pipeline networks,
and other relevant geological/infrastructural information. The area of Szczecin, Poland, is presented as an example for demonstrating
the idea of GeoCapacity and the GIS. CCS is a methodology to reduce the CO2 emissions which is, at least technologically, available
at once. Despite of a considerable risk of leaky wells, CO2 storage in depleted hydrocarbon fields is the best near future option
because of already existing infrastructure and usually very well investigated geology. In Poland and Germany there is, however, only
a limited storage potential in these reservoirs. The storage potential in saline aquifers is thought to be much bigger, but still knowledge
and legal regulation are lacking. The GeoCapacity results will widen our knowledge about geological storage structures in Europe as
one near future option for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Zusammenfassung
Im Rahmen des EU-Projekts GeoCapacity soll ein Geo-Informationssystem (GIS) entwickelt werden, das auf dem Prinzip der
Kohlendioxidabscheidung und -speicherung (CCS) beruht. Die Datengrundlage für das GIS umfaßt thematische Karten zu natürlichen und industriellen CO2-Quellen, salinaren Aquiferen, Kohlenwasserstoff- und Kohlefeldern, Untertagespeichern für Gas und
Öl, potentiellen Injektionspunkten, zum Pipeline-Netz sowie zu weiteren relevanten geologischen/infrastrukturellen Informationen.
Die Gegend um Szczecin (Stettin) in Polen wird als Beispiel präsentiert, um die Idee von GeoCapacity und das GIS zu veranschaulichen. CCS ist eine Möglichkeit zur Reduktion von CO2-Emissionen, die – zumindest technologisch – schon heute zur Verfügung
steht. Trotz des Risikos undichter Bohrungen ist die CO2-Speicherung in ausgebeuteten Kohlenwasserstoffeldern wegen der bereits
vorhandenen Infrastruktur und der normalerweise sehr gut untersuchten Geologie die beste Methode für die nahe Zukunft. In
Polen und Deutschland gibt es jedoch nur ein begrenztes Speicherpotential in diesen Strukturen. Das Speicherpotential in salinaren
Z. geol. Wiss. 36 (4–5) 2008
303
B. WILLSCHER et al.
Aquiferen wird weitaus positiver bewertet, es besteht jedoch noch ein großes Defizit in Bezug auf Wissensstand und Gesetzgebung.
Die Resultate aus dem Projekt GeoCapacity sollen unsere Kenntnis über geologische Speicherstrukturen in Europa erweitern – als
eine zukunftsnahe Option zur Reduzierung von Treibhausgasen.
Streszczenie
W ramach projektu EU GeoCapacity opracowany bedzie System Informacji Geograficznej (Geographic Information System – GIS)
dla zagadnien wychwytywania i skladowania CO2 (Carbon Capture and Storage – CCS). Baza danych GIS z projektu EU Geocapacity
zawiera warstwy tematyczne dotyczace przemyslowych i naturalnych {ródel emisji, poziomów wodonosnych, zlóz weglowodorów i
wegla, magazynów gazu ziemnego i paliw, potencjalnych punktów zatlaczania, ropo- i gazocia gów i innych istotnych informacji
dotyczacych geologii i infrastruktury. Wazna elementem GIS’u bedzie narzedzie do analizy ekonomicznej (Economic Analysis Tool),
ulatwiajace ocene kosztów wychwytywania, transportu i skladowania CO2 dla scenariuszy {ródlo emisji – miejsce skladowania,
okreslonych przez uzytkownika. Okolice Szczecina (Polska) zostaly zaprezentowane jako przyklad demonstrujacy idee projektu EU
Geocapcity oraz GIS’u. CCS jest metoda redukcji emisji CO2, która jest juz dostepna technologicznie. Pomijajac powazne zagrozenie
zwiazane z wyciekiem poprzez nieszczelne otwory, skladowanie CO2 w zlozach weglowodorów jest najlepsza opcja mozliwa do
realizacji w niedalekiej przyszlosci, ze wzgledu na istniejaca infrastrukture oraz dobrze rozpoznana budowe geologiczna zlóz.
Jednakze zarówno w Polsce jak i w Niemczech potencjal skladowania w zlozach weglowodorów jest ograniczony. Uwaza sie, ze
potencjal skladowania w poziomach wodonosnych jest znacznie wiekszy, jednak ciagle brak jest w tym zakresie wiedzy i regulacji
prawnych. Wyniki EU GeoCapacity przyczynia sie do zwiekszenia naszej wiedzy o mozliwosci wykorzystania struktur do geologicznego skladowania w Europie jako jednej z przyszlych mozliwosci redukcji emisji gazu cieplarnianego.
1.
Introduction
In the EU project GeoCapacity (Assessing European
Capacity for Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide) large
industrial CO2 sources and possible geological storage
sites will be compiled, resting upon the idea of Carbon
Capture and Storage (CCS). The project bases upon the
obligation the EU entered into at Kyoto to reduce its
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during 2008 until 2012
by an average of 8 %, this means by 21 % from the 1990
level for Germany and by 6 % from the 1988 level for
Poland. The increase of the EU made it desirable to assess
the EU-wide production and storage potential of CO2
by means of an EU-wide project to get the database to
develop and evaluate strategies for the reduction of CO2
emissions by CCS. CCS bases upon the principle of a
Zero Emission Power Plant, realised by the pre- or postcombustion capture of CO2, which can also be combined
with the production of hydrogen. We today are not able
to respond the rise of energy demand in the European
countries and to lower at the same time the production
of CO2 considerably by energy efficiency measures, fuel
substitution (coal or oil to gas), or by producing energy
based on renewable energy sources. Furthermore, nuclear
power is not an acceptable alternative, at least in Germany
and Poland. Therefore, using fossil fuels in combination
with CCS seems to be the only near future option to
achieve this objectives without lowering our economic
status.
The GeoCapacity project has developed from the
former EU projects GESTCO (Geological Storage of
CO2 from combustion of fossil fuel) and CASTOR (CO2
304
from Capture to Storage). Within the framework of the
project GESTCO, a Geographic Information System
(GIS) was built up for some north-western, western
and southern European countries including Germany
(CHRISTENSEN & HOLLOWAY 2004). The project pioneered
the mapping of CO2 emissions and storage, and has
served as an international example. In the project
CASTOR, possibilities of geological storage of CO2 generated by fossil fuel combustion were evaluated for some
EU countries, and as well for some EU candidate and
new member states including Poland (WÓJCICKI 2005).
Within the GeoCapacity project the data of these two
projects now become combined, supplemented, and updated. New EU members and candidate states will be
assessed as well. Technical site selection criteria and guidelines for the evaluation of geological CO2 storage sites
will be developed to provide a methodology for assessing
the geological capacity in Europe and elsewhere. A GIS
will be created which will contain thematic layers on:
– natural and industrial CO2 sources
– saline aquifers, hydrocarbon fields, and coal fields,
including potential injection points
– gas and fuel underground storage sites
– gas and oil pipeline networks
– other relevant geological/infrastructural information
An important feature of the GIS will be the integration
of an Economic Analysis Tool, which facilitates the
evaluation of costs of CO2 capture, transport, and storage
for considered source-to-sink scenarios defined by
the user. It bases upon the DSS (Decision Support
System) software tool of the GESTCO project but
will be more user-friendly and will have enhanced
Z. geol. Wiss. 36 (4–5) 2008