HATTUSAS – Miasto Tysiąca Bogów Hattusas to stolica imperium

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HATTUSAS – Miasto Tysiąca Bogów Hattusas to stolica imperium
HATTUSAS – Miasto Tysiąca Bogów
Hattusas to stolica imperium hetyckiego. Obecnie stanowisko archeologiczne położone w
pobliżu miasta Boazkale w Anatolii, około 145 km od Ankary, w 1986 roku wpisane na listę
światowego dziedzictwa UNESCO.
Miasto zostało założone przed 2000 rokiem p.n.e. przez lud Hatti. W XIX i XVIII w. p.n.e.
znajdowała się tu faktoria handlowa związana z kupiecką kolonią asyryjską w Kanesz, położonej w pobliżu dzisiejszego Kültepe. Około 1700 r. p.n.e. miasto zostało zdobyte przez króla Anitta, wywodzącego się z miasta Kussary, który zrównał miasto z ziemią, przestrzegając następców, by, pod groźbą boskiej kary, nie ważyli się go odbudować. W połowie XVII w. p.n.e. król
Labarna z Kussary, który przybrał imię Hattusilis I, otoczył kamiennym murem obszar zrujnowanego miasta i w ich obwodzie wzniósł nowe budynki. Hattusa stała się stołecznym miastem
hetyckiego państwa. Miasto założono na ściętym wierzchołku, obronnego z natury, wzgórza o
powierzchni ok. 1.8 km kwadratowych. Składało się z dwóch jednostek: wewnętrznej cytadeli z
budynkami administracyjnymi i świątyniami, i właściwego miasta opasanego murami z trzema
potężnymi bramami, do których prowadziły platformy flankowane zewnętrznymi murami. Zachodnia brama była ozdobiona reliefem lwa, wschodnia reliefem wojownika, południowa reliefem sfinksa. Na terenie miasta wzniesiono cztery zespoły świątynne. W trakcie badań odnaleziono w Hattusie jedną z najstarszych królewskich bibliotek z terenów Bliskiego Wschodu, liczącą 1
300 tabliczek.
Hattusa została zdobyta ok. 1200 r. p.n.e. prawdopodobnie przez tak zwane Ludy Morza, i
to wydarzenie stanowi końcową cezurę istnienia państwa hetyckiego.
W 1906 roku niemiecki archeolog Hugo Winckler rozpoczął tu badania archeologiczne.
HATTUSAS
If the name of "City of a Thousand Gods" really arouses your interest then Hattusas (Hattusa or Hattush) is the place to be. Located in one of the most rugged territories in the central
Anatolian region Hattusas used to be the political and the religious capital of the Hittite Empire.
Having the modern-day village of Bogazkale (formerly known as Bogazköy) as its immediate
neighbor Hattusas has the Kizil Irmak River running through it.
It is amazing to see how Turkey holds the key to so many civilizations. Much is known
about the other places but Hattusas is a place that defies all known boundaries of comprehension for much is left to be unearthed here.
The history of Hattusas can be traced back to the 3rd millennium B.C. to the settlement of
an Anatolian tribe of unknown origin called the Hatti. Much later in around 1800B.C. King
Anitta of Kushara invaded the city and ruined it by setting fire to it. Generations later his descendant, King Labarnas invaded it and named it Hattusas (Land of the Hatti). After his conquest, he changed his name to Hattusilis and founded the Hittite kingdom.
A stable period of Hittite rule continued from 1650 to 1200 B.C. and apart from ruling most
of Anatolia, the Hittite rule spread to northern Syria as well. This became a bone of contention
between the Egyptians and the Hittites, which resulted in the historic Battle of Kadesh. However, with the war ending in an impasse, a truce was called. This is considered to be the first
such treaty in human history.
Till about 1200 B.C. the Hittite rule was supreme in west Asia, but due to internal royal conflicts the Empire was left vulnerable to invasion. The Phrygians made use of this opportunity
and invaded the city in 1200B.C. but instead of settling there they burned and demolished it. The
city we see today was created and established by the Phrygians who returned and settled there
between the 9th and 7th centuries B.C. Later Galatian, Byzantine and Roman communities
settled there.
The city of Hattusas is a tourist attraction in itself, an archaeological storehouse of sorts.
There is one main entrance to the site and when you enter the first edifice you come across is the
Buyuk Tapinak temple. The temple is sited in the heart of the Lower City and is surrounded by a
wall. The actual temple is cut off from the outer portions and only the King and the Queen in
their role as the priest and the priestess were allowed to enter it. The Buyuk Tapinak was dedicated to the Sun Goddess of Arinna and the Storm God, two of the most important deities of the
Hittites. Constructed during the reign of Hattusilis III (1275-1250 B.C.), the last great Hittite
King, the ruins of the temple speak of its social importance. Presently, you will find offices,
storerooms, workshops and even large earthen vessels.
The Büyükkale or the Great Fortress accommodated the royal couple and their residence is
surrounded by a system of protective walls located on a crest. The palace also has public rooms,
sacred areas, a huge reception hall and was the residence of the royal sentinel.
Nisantepe is an artificially rounded rock projection that bears a message that is almost 9mlong. The worn out inscriptions are considered to be a record of the activities of the last Hittite
King Suppiliumus II.
The Hieroglyphic Chamber No. 1 and the Southern Fort had been erected several centuries
after the collapse of the Hittite Empire. The former dates to 1200 B.C. and is built into the side of
an artificial dam and has interesting figures carved on it and there are hieroglyphics on its opposite wall.
The Kralkapi or King`s Gate is the best-preserved city gate at Hattusas. There are two
towers on two sides that have both an inner and outer portal. You will find a model of the relief
of the Hittite God of War, the original of which is in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in
Ankara.
The highest construction in this archaeological site lies in Yerkapi, which means "Earth
Gate" or gate in the Ground" and is popularly known as the Sphinx gate. The Sphinx gate gets its
name from four sphinxes that watch over the inner gate. Around 28 temples have been uncovered in the area and to reach the 15m high artificial banks you have to climb stone steps.
There is a 69-meter long tunnel that used to act as a shortcut to enter the city during times of
peace, while in the wartime it was a deterrent to invaders.
The Aslankapi or Lion`s Gate is one of the best-conserved relics at Hattusas and it is so named because of the presence of frontal portions of two lions carved out of stone blocks. Another interesting object
at the site is a pictographic inscription on the head of one of the lions, which

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