ORNAMENTAL and SPECIAL PLANTS

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ORNAMENTAL and SPECIAL PLANTS
Biostimulators
IN MODERN AGRICULTURE
Ornamental
and special plants
E D I T O R : Aleksandra Łukaszewska
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Biostimulators
IN MODERN AGRICULTURE
Ornamental
and special plants
EDITOR: Aleksandra Lukaszewska
Warsaw 2008
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The series of monographs under a common name BIOSTIMULATORS IN MODERN AGRICULTURE
contains a review of recent research related to this subject and consists of the following parts:
GENERAL ASPECTS
FIELD CROPS
SOLANACEOUS CROPS
VEGETABLE CROPS
FRUIT CROPS
ORNAMENTAL AND SPECIAL PLANTS
EDITORIAL BOARD:
Andrzej Sadowski, Department of Pomology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS) – chairman
Zbigniew T. D¹browski, Department of Applied Entomology, WULS
Helena Gawroñska, Laboratory of Basic Natural Sciences in Horticulture, WULS
Aleksandra £ukaszewska, Department of Ornamental Plants, WULS
Adam S³owiñski, Arysta LifeScience Poland
PRODUCTION EDITORS:
Aleksandra £ukaszewska Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS)
Anna Karbowniczek, Arysta LifeScience Poland
Ada Krzeczkowska, Wieœ Jutra
Halina Skrobacka, Wieœ Jutra
REVIEWERS:
Aleksandra £ukaszewska, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS)
Karol Chyliñski, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS)
Halina Laskowska, University of Life Sciences in Lublin
Monika Latkowska, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS)
Leonard Indeka, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS)
Bo¿ena Matysiak, Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, Skierniewice
Irena Olszewska-Kaczyñska, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS)
Andrzej Pacholczak, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS)
Ewa Skutnik, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS)
Piotr Urbañski, Poznan University of Life Sciences
Katarzyna Wróblewska, Wroc³aw University of Environmental and Life Sciences
This edition was supported by Arysta LifeScience
Cover: Plantpress
ISBN 83-89503-60-3
Published by the Editorial House Wieœ Jutra, Limited
Janowskiego 6
02-784 Warszawa
phone: (0 22) 643 82 60
e-mail: [email protected]
www.wiesjutra.pl
Printed by Ryko
Copies 300, publishing sheets: 6.0
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CONTENTS
PREFACE ..................................................................................................................................... 5
THE EFFECT OF BIOPREPARATIONS ON EARLY STAGE OF GROWTH OF SELECTED
GRASS SPECIES USED FOR RECLAMATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE DUMPS ................. 7
Daria G¹bka, Karol Wolski
EFFECT OF ASAHI SL BIOSTIMULATOR ON ORNAMENTAL AMARANTH
(AMARANTHUS SPP.) PLANTS EXPOSED TO SALINITY IN GROWING MEDIUM ............. 15
Mariola Wrochna, Barbara £ata, Bo¿enna Borkowska, Helena Gawroñska
THE EFFECTS OF BIOSTIMULATORS ASAHI SL AND SIAPTON 10L ON THE GROWTH
OF BERGENIA CORDIFOLIA ((HAW.) STERNB.) `ROTBLUM` AND HOSTA (TRATT.)
`SUM AND SUBSTANCE` AND `MINUTEMAN` .................................................................... 33
Justyna Krajewska, Monika J. Latkowska
EFFECT OF ASAHI SL ON THE INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF WILLOW CUTTINGS
AT VARIED SOIL MOISTURE ................................................................................................... 40
Gra¿yna Harasimowicz-Hermann, Krzysztof Czy¿
THE EFFECT OF ATONIC PLANT GROWTH STIMULATOR ON PHYSIOLOGICAL
INDICATORS OF THE BASKET WILLOW (SALIX VIMINALIS L.) CULTIVATED IN
ANTHROPOGENIC SOIL ............................................................................................................. 47
Jacek Wróbel, Anna WoŸniak
INFLUENCE OF ETEPHON ON FLOWERING OF EASY POT FREESIA CULTIVATED
IN SPRING-SUMMER SEASON ................................................................................................ 56
Piotr ¯urawik
POLISH SUMMARIES ............................................................................................................... 63
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PREFACE
The high yield potential of modern cultivars is often restrained by various environmental stresses both of biotic and abiotic nature, affecting the crop status. The
present approach in pro-ecological plant protection from such biotic stresses as
weeds, diseases and pests emphasises enhancement of naturally occurring compounds, organisms or plant defence mechanisms. These compounds should fill the
gap resulting from the regulatory decisions of national authorities in many countries, leading to restrictions in use of a number of synthetic pesticides.
Extensive research carried out in the last two decades has shown that some
natural products may be efficiently used in enhancing the plant’s endogenous resistance or tolerance to the biotic and abiotic stresses. A group of such active products is presently classified as biostimulators. When reduction of the chemical input
is expected, the use of biostimulators becomes a particularly promising option. Biostimulators are defined as compounds of biological origin and should act by increasing natural capabilities of plants to cope with stresses. Biostimulators do not act
neither as nutrients nor affect directly the stress factors making them less harmful
for plants.
The efficacy of biostimulators is not limited to reducing effects of biotic and
abiotic stresses. They stimulate growth and development of plants under unfavourable soil and climatic conditions. Although the effects of biostimulators are not
so spectacular and not always stable over the years – due to interaction with other
used chemicals and/or environmental factors – the interest of farmers in using biostimulators is successively increasing over time.
According to the national legislation, biostimulators are related to the category
of plant protection products. Therefore they must comply with all rules for registration and hence –prior to formal approval for use they must be tested for safety to
humans and the environment.
The dynamic increase of research projects on biostimulators and of farmers’
interest in their use in agriculture and horticulture production provoked an idea of
the international conference on „Biostimulators in Modern Agriculture”. It was
organized by the Laboratory of Basic Sciences in Horticulture, at the Faculty of
Horticulture and Landscape Architecture at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences. The conference has attracted a large group of scientists and graduate students
from universities and research institutions involved in basic and applied research
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in agriculture as well from the industry. About three hundred sixty participants included also representatives of farmers and distributors of agricultural supplies.
The extensive and creative discussions during the conference and interest in
conference materials as well as suggestions from participants indicated the urgent
need for dissemination of the state of knowledge on biostimulators. This inspired
the organizers of the Conference to co-ordinate preparing reviews on recent scientific achievements in the field of biostimulators, including the practical aspects of
their application on various crops. Following suggestions appearing at the Conference, the organisers invited scientists having experience and achievements in work
on biostimulators to prepare relevant reviews related to particular products and
crops.
Based on the submitted manuscripts the Editorial Board decided to publish a
series of monographs entitled: „BIOSTIMULATORS IN MODERN AGRICULTURE” comprising the following six volumes: „General Aspects”, „Field Crops”, „Solanaceous Crops”, „Vegetable Crops”, „Fruit Crops” and „Ornamental and Special Plants”.
The Editors hope that this publication would fill the gap in knowledge on the
mechanisms of action of various biostimulators and on the conditions for their high
efficacy. We are very grateful to the authors who willingly agreed to contribute to
these books.
EDITORS
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THE EFFECT OF BIOPREPARATIONS ON EARLY STAGE
OF GROWTH OF SELECTED GRASS SPECIES USED FOR
RECLAMATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE DUMPS
Daria G¹bka, Karol Wolski
Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland
INTRODUCTION
Recently, we have been observing the effects of the years lasting human activity
which resulted in environmental pollution exemplified, among others, by devastated and
degraded areas which have to be subjected to land reclamation processes. Restoring the
value of soils by special biological treatments has become a challenge to contemporary
scientists. Crucial for the successful soil reclamation is an appropriate selection of plants
able to thrive in the extremely unfavorable habitat conditions since they often have to
face pollution of all environmental components, namely water and air pollution, as well as
soil contamination. Grasses have proved to be very advantageous plants regarding biological reclamation of soil as they have low nutrition requirements, high resistance to drought and frost as well as tolerance of salinity and heavy metals. They also posses an
ability to incorporate toxic substances into their biomass and a considerable immunity to
plant diseases and pathogens. Grasses do successfully fulfill three basic functions of
reclamation process: antierosion, soil-building and decoration. Yet, in spite of all the features mentioned above, the environment is sometimes polluted to such a degree that additional introduction of the so-called biopreparations, also known as natural biological stimulators, seems to be fully justified. Biopreparations consist solely of natural substances
like free amino acids in their biologically active form, oligoproteins, soluble humates, plant
extracts, growth factors, selected microorganisms, valuable nutrients, probiotic and enzymatic factors, essential for many biological functions. Because of their rich composition
biopreparations are of high quality and have a wide spectrum of action.
Biopreparations act on the root system increasing its capacity of nutrient absorption
from soil or any substrate, they possess chelating properties for microelements which
become easily available for plants thus decreasing a risk of various forms of chlorosis,
they stimulate and nourish week and stressed plants. They fulfill a useful function of
carriers in relation to mineral elements and fertilizers, and increase plants resistance to
climate and environmental stresses.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the applied biopreparations
on early growth of grass species destined for reclamation of municipal waste dump slopes at Swojec in Wroclaw.
8
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The experiment was established on 19th April 2007 at the northern slope of municipal
waste dump at Swojec in Wroclaw (Fig. 1), which is located in the eastern part of the city,
in the river Widawa basin. This dumping ground has been utilized since 1973 at the former clay pit, on the area of permeable bedding, without any protection against pollution of
ground waters with effluents from waste dump. In 1991 exploitation of this municipal
dumping ground ended and the stage of dump technical reclamation was completed [Account 2005]. Climate conditions (air temperature and rainfall) on the area of municipal
dumping ground in 2007 and in the years 1976-2007 are shown in table 1.
THE EXPERIMENTS
Doœwiadczenia
THE MUNICIPALWASTE DUMPS
Sk³adowisko odpadów komunalnych
FIGURE 1. LOCATION PLAN – MUNICIPAL DUMPING GROUND AT SWOJEC IN WROCLAW WITH
EXPERIMENTAL PLOTS
SOURCE: OWN STUDY.
Rysunek 1. Sk³adowisko odpadów komunalnych Swojec we Wroc³awiu z lokalizacj¹ za³o¿onych
doœwiadczeñ
ród³o: badania w³asne.
9
TAB LE 1. WEATH ER C ON D ITION S D ATA FR OM WEATH ER STATION AT SWOJEC IN WR OC LAW
Tabela 1. D ane meteorologi czne ze stacji Wroc³aw – Swojec
MON TH
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
Mi esi ¹c
AVERAGE D AILY TEMPERATURE [0C ] IN PARTIC ULAR
MONTH IN 2007
10.90 16.16 19.19 19.23 18.86 12.89
Œredni a dzi enna temperatura [0C ] z mi esi ¹ca w 2007 r.
AVERAGE D AILY TEMPERATURE [0C ] IN THE YEARS
1976-2005
8.3
14.1 16,9 18.7 17.9 13.3
Œredni a dzi enna temperatura [0C ] za lata 1976-2005
TOTAL MONTHLY PREC IPITATION [mm] IN 2007
2.7
50.3 69,2 92.4 52.8 46.1
Mi esi êczna suma opadów [mm] w 2007 r.
TOTAL PREC IPITATION [mm] IN THE YEARS 1970-2000
30.5
51.3 59.5 78.9 61.7 45.3
Suma opadów [mm] w latach 1970-2000
SOURC E: OWN STUD Y.
ród³o: badani a w³asne.
Agriculturally used areas can be found in the vicinity of the dumping ground (arable
land, meadows and pastures). The south-west part of waste dump, however, adheres to
the area of stores and warehouses. Soil grain size analysis proved the occurrence of silty
soil (sand silt) featuring advantageous protective properties (sorption of contaminants)
[Account 2002].
The whole object of investigation was divided into two experiments with different
sowing rates (1 or 2 caryopsis/cm2). The experiments were established according to a
split-plot design with two factors (1) particular grass species and cultivars, (2) biopreparations applied (Greenflorid, GreenBio) to be compared to an untreated control (Tab.2).
TAB LE 2. EXPER IMEN TAL SC H EME – MU N IC IPAL WASTE D U MP AT SWOJEC IN WR OC LAW
Tabela 2. Schemat doœwi adczeñ na sk³adowi sku odpadów komunalnych Swojec we Wroc³awi u
SPEC IES
C U LTIVAR
I EXPER IMEN T
II EXPER IMEN T
Gatunek
Odmi ana
– 1 C AR YOPSIS/cm2
– 2 C AR YOPSES/cm2
I doœwi adczeni e – 1 zi arni ak/cm2
II doœwi adczeni e – 2 zi arni aki /cm2
C ON TR OL
APPLIED
C ON TR OL
APPLIED
(U N TR EATED ) B IOPR EPAR ATION (U N TR EATED ) B IOPR EPAR ATION
Obi ekt kontrolny
Bi opromotor
Obi ekt kontrolny
Bi opromotor
Festuca
arundi nacea
`ASTERIX`
`INKA`
`PINIA`
`AD IO`
Festuca rubra
`NIMBA`
`ALIC JA`
Poa pratensi s
`NAND U`
`NONI`
Festuca ovi na
`WITRA`
SOURC E: OWN STUD Y.
ród³o: badani a w³asne.
Lo l i u m
perenne
10
Grass species and cultivars were selected to meet the requirements of sowing on
difficult habitat areas (land reclamation species) and biopreparations introduced were
meant to support plant development, as well as to increase grass resistance to unfavorable environmental conditions. The experiments involved different sowing rates and various rates of biopreparation according to the species sown.
To assess efficiency of biopreparations on seedling emergence for two sowing rates
(unit/m2) results of observations were subjected to analysis after 4 and 6 weeks (biopreparations versus untreated control).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Observations of the early growth of grass on experimental plots (biopreparations vs
untreated control) showed that biopreparations fulfilled their function which was to contribute to a better growth and development of plants and had beneficial effects on their
vegetation in the unfavorable environmental conditions.
Natural humic substances, as components of soil organic matter and included in biopreparations, play a vital role in soil fertility and environmental quality and are beneficial
for plant growth. They increase fertilizer efficiency or reduce soil compaction. Our work
indicated that plant stimulation provided by increased micro-elements iron and zinc availability, in the presence of humic substances, was the most important factor. Biopreparations facilitate uptake of trace metals like iron and zinc and, at the same time, provide
simple and less expensive methods of plant nutrition eliminating or reducing the risk of
environmental contamination. Investigation by Clapp et all [2002] confirmed such an
action of biopreparations and proved the improvement of grass growth by humic substances. In Agrostis stolonifera peat extract addition caused the increase in root and shoot
dry mass from 46 to 65%, with the more pronounced increase being observed in roots.
Soil organic matter is also a source of nitrogen and other nutrients. Kerek et al. [2003]
proved that nitrogen can be found in soil mobile fraction. Nitrogen content in soil mobile
fraction increases as the sward age increases. The mentioned preparations affect soil
microbiological activity and therefore, the root zone. Due to that fact the quality of grass
becomes significantly ameliorated. Soil microorganisms make use of biopreparations and
consequently, the visual quality of grass is considerably improved after application of
biopreparations and this improvement is not a result of a nutrients’ source.
Nevertheless, these observations do not exclude the possibility that biopreparations
can have additional ability to improve the plant tolerance to excessive drought and moisture [Mueller 2005]. Soil physico-chemical properties affect a behavior and reproduction of Listeria and Yersimia bacteria. Such factors as high content of humic acids and
fulvic acids in humus, as well as high temperature of soil stimulate bacteria reproduction
in soils. High content of humus, predominance of humates and low temperature of soil
inhibit bacteria development, which was proved by Sidorenko et all [2006].
The research carried out by Zhang revealed an effect of temperature on activity of
enzymes in two cultivars of Cynodon dactylon. Catalase and peroxidase activity decreased in response to cold acclimation in both cultivars. The cold acclimation triggered
11
accumulation of sugars and proline in grass and affected structure of carbohydrates and
protein, but this effect was cultivar-dependant [Zhang et al. 2006].
According to Duo Li An et al. [2005] the addition of EDTA significantly increased
heavy metal accumulation in grasses The concentrations of heavy metals in Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea increased with the increasing EDTA supply. The EDTAinduced increase in the accumulation of heavy metals in turfgrass was plant and metalspecific. Lolium perenne had a relatively high ability to accumulate Cr, Ni, and Zn.
Additionally EDTA caused increase in the chlorophyll and proline contents and improved
caryopsis germination [Duo Li An et al. 2005].
Amino acids and peptides constitute an essential part of biomolecules which form
biostimulants. Cambri [2008] carried out his research using Aminoplast preparation which,
among others, diminishes yield losses resulting from stress conditions due to abiotic factors (salinity, extreme temperature, drought), especially in the crucial stages of plant growth,
e.g. during flowering, which consumes a considerable amount of energy, therefore, the
important processes taking place in plants can be easily disturbed. Aminoplast applied to
plant roots in the conditions of soil salinity completely prevented inhibition of plant growth
resulting from a high salt concentration. There are other reports confirming normalization
of such plant physiological parameters as contents of the following elements: K, Na, Cu,
Zn and Fe, as well as stomatal conductance, CO2 absorption or transpiration which in
untreated plants usually undergo negative alterations. Application of particular amino acids
does not ensure balanced improvement of gene expression and only synergetic amino
acids activity brings about a satisfactory result. Investigation involving Aminoplast, which
is amino acids solution, proved that activity of this preparation is due to stimulation of
plant defensive reactions [Cambri 2008]. Growth regulators are organic substances which,
applied in low amounts, can stimulate, inhibit or modify in other ways physiological processes taking place in plants. Investigation by Starczewski et al. [2008] suggest that an
appropriate selection of grass cultivars, as well as introduction of growth regulators can
markedly decrease the costs of plant cultivation and labor input without lowering the
quality of lawn grass.
In the experiment at Swojec the most important reactions resulting from biopreparations’ application appeared 6 weeks after sowing, while in the experiment with two caryopses per one area unit (cm2) biopreparation activity was recorded after 4 weeks. Generally speaking, it takes biopreparations about 4 weeks to reveal their activity.
The first assessment of seedling emergence in experiment 1 did not reveal any activity of biopromotors since for all grass cultivars the number of units per 1 m2 was higher
for the control. Yet in experiment 2 several grass cultivars showed higher values on the
biopromotor treated plots as compared to the control one: Festuca arundinacea `Asterix`, Festuca rubra `Adio`, Festuca ovina `Noni` and `Witra`.
The most evident results could be observed in both experiments 6 weeks after sowing, because grass seedlings emergence was definitely higher on the objects with biopromotors in comparison to the control treatment.
For the following grass cultivars the higher emergence values (unit/m2) were recorded: Festuca arundinacea `Asterix`, Lolium perenne `Pinia`, Festuca rubra `Adio`,
`ASTERIX`
Festuca arundi nacea
`INKA`
Lol i um perenne
`PINIA`
Lol i um perenne
`AD IO`
Festuca rubra
`NIMBA`
Festuca rubra
`ALIC JA`
Poa pratensi s
`NAND U`
Poa pratensi s
`NONI`
Festuca ovi na
`WITRA`
Festuca ovi na
AVERAGE
Œredni a
LSD a = 0.05 AFTER 4 WEEKS
NIRa = 0.05 po 4 tygodni ach
LLSD a = 0.05 AFTER 6 WEEKS
NIRa = 0.05 po 6 tygodni ach
SOURC E: OWN STUD Y.
ród³o: badani a w³asne.
978
882
6
3067
2600
13 3 3
900
67
67
0
333
43 3
4
2667
16 3 3
2833
46 7
267
67
0
0
0
4
6
2 41
2530
143 3
9000
5800
17 6 7
18 3 3
0
0
13 6 7
15 6 7
271
13 15
143 3
3233
5267
13 3
233
16 7
10 0
33
12 3 3
253
1104
48 3 3
900
2 40 0
10 0 0
0
0
0
16 7
633
6
320
5 41
18 0 0
43 3
2200
67
33
0
0
0
0
4
12 41
2 43 3
2767
2 13 3
367
16 7
0
10 0
10 3 3
2 16 7
WEEK
Tydzi eñ
4
3022
40 3 3
9000
8833
2000
10 6 7
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1100
1167
6
10 9 9
2050
2 43 3
40 5 0
300
250
117
50
16,5
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4
17 5 4
2250
5800
3567
13 3 4
950
33,5
0
850
10 0 0
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891
2117
16 0 0
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2 17
10 0
0
50
516.5
10 8 4
4
2063
443 3
49 5 0
5 6 17
15 0 0
533,5
0
0
633.5
900
6
TAB LE 3. SEED LIN G EMER GEN C E OF SELEC TED GR ASS SPEC IES 4 AN D 6 WEEK S AFTER SOWIN G FOR TWO SOWIN G R ATEST
(1 OR 2 C AR YOPSES/cm2)
Tabela 3. Wschody traw po 4 i 6 tygodni ach od za³o¿eni a doœwi adczeni a dla ró¿nych norm wysi ewu (1 lub 2 zi arni aki /cm2)
SPEC IFIC ATION
SOWIN G R ATE
AVER AGE
Wyszczególni eni e
Norma wysi ewu
Œredni a
2 C AR YOPSES/cm2
1 C AR YOPSIS/cm2
1 zi arni ak/cm2
2 zi arni aki /cm2
SPEC IES
C U LTIVAR
C ON TR OL
APPLIED
C ON TR OL
APPLIED
C ON TR OL
APPLIED
Gatunek
odmi ana
(U N TR EATED ) B IOPR EPAR ATION (U N TR EATED ) B IOPR EPAR ATION (U N TR EATED ) B IOPR EPAR ATION
Obi ekt kontrolny
Bi opromotor
Obi ekt kontrolny
Bi opromotor
Obi ekt kontrolny
Bi opromotor
12
13
Festuca ovina `Witra`, while in experiment 2 higher values characterized : Festuca arundinacea `Asterix`, Lolium perenne `Inka`, `Pinia`, Festuca rubra `Adio`.
Inhibition of grass growth under the influence of biopreparation in experiment 1 was
recorded for the following cultivars: Lolium perenne `Inka`, Festuca rubra `Nimba`,
Poa pratensis `Alicja`, `Nandu`, Festuca ovina `Noni`, and in experiment 2 for Festuca
rubra `Nimba`, Poa pratensis `Alicja`, `Nandu`, Festuca ovina `Noni`, `Witra`.
Increased sowing rate accompanied by introduction of a biopreparation resulted in
growth inhibition in some grass species and their cultivars (Tab. 3).
The analysis of the weather conditions in 2007 allows to notice that high temperature
in July affected grass seedlings’ emergence as 6 weeks after sowing a smaller number of
units/m was determined than after 4 weeks on the object treated with biopromotor (Festuca arundinacea `Asterix`), which can be explained by the effect of air temperature
on the biopreparation activity. Not only high but also low temperature affects the activity
of microorganisms, components of biopromotors, either stimulating or inhibiting their activity.
In July, i.e. 6 weeks after grass sowing, the highest amount of rainfall was recorded
at the experimental site. However, April, when sowing took place, featured the lowest
amount of rainfall (2,7 mm), considerably less than the average value (30,5 mm) recorded
for the years 1970-2007. The latter parameter could affect the early stage of grass growth
and result in reduced growth of some grass species, among others Poa pratensis. Biopreparation activity depends both on grass species and cultivar, as well as on a sowing
rate and weather conditions. The factors mentioned above can affect biopreparation
activity in either positive or negative way.
CONCLUSIONS
1. The effect of biopreparations becomes apparent about 4-6 weeks after their application, when their activation in soil is established.
2. Biopreparation activity depends on grass species and cultivar, as well as on a sowing
rate and weather conditions.
3. In spite of unfavorable ambient conditions biopreparations applied in this investigation
positively affected growth and development of the following grass species and cultivars: Festuca arundinacea `Asterix`, Lolium perenne `Pinia`, Festuca rubra `Adio`.
4. In grass species and cultivars such as: Lolium perenne `Inka`, Festuca rubra `Nimba`, Poa pratensis `Nandu`, Festuca ovina `Noni`, biopreparations inhibited plant
growth, especially at increased sowing rate.
REFERENCES
Account with monitoring research among of the municipal waste dumps Swojec in Wroclaw in 2004-2005
year. 2005: Arcadis Ekokonrem, Wroclaw.
Account with monitoring research number 5 among of the municipal waste dumps Swojec in Wroclaw. 2002:
Arcadis Ekokonrem. Wroclaw, Department of Environment protection and Landscape Development in
Wroclaw.
14
Cambri D. 2008: Amino Acids: the scientific basis of the biostimulation. [In:] Materia³y konferencyjne –
abstrakty. SGGW, Warszawa.
Clapp C.E., Chen Y., Hayes M., Cline V., Palazzo A., Molina J., White D., Baker J.M. 2002: Humic
substances for enhancing plant growth. International Humic Substances Society Conference. p. 328329. University of Minnesota, USA.
Duo Li An., Gao YuBao, Zhao ShuLan 2005: Heavy metal accumulation and ecological responses of
turfgrass to rubbish compost with EDTA addition. J. Integ. Plant Biol., 47(9): 1047-1054.
Kerek M., Rhae A., Drijber R., Gaussoin E. 2003: Labile soil organic matter as a potential nitrogen source
in golf greens. Soil Biol. Biochem., col. 35, No. 12, s. 1643-1649.
Mueller S.R., Kussow W.R. 2005: Biostymulant influences on turfgrass microbial communities and creeping bentgrass putting green quality. Hort. Sci., 40(6): 1904-1910.
Report with monitoring research among of the municipal waste dumps Swojec in Wroclaw in 2004-2005
year. 2005: Arcadis Ekokonrem, Wroclaw.
Report with monitoring research number 5 among of the municipal waste dumps Swojec in Wroclaw. 2002:
Arcadis Ekokonrem, Wroclaw.
Sidorenko M., Buzoleva L.S., Kostenkov N.M. 2006: The effect of soil properties on the preservation
and reproduction of Listeria and Yersinia. Biology – Soil Science Institute DVO RAN. Vladivostok,
Russia. Pochvovedenie, (2): 237-243.
Starczewski K., Affek-Starczewska A., Jankowski K. 2008: Ryegrass turf grasses regrowth rate, depending on the applied phytohormones. [In:] Materia³y konferencyjne – abstrakty. SGGW, Warszawa.
Zhang X.Z., Ervin E. H., LaBranche A.J. 2006: Metabolic defense responses of seeded bermudagrass during
acclimation to freezing stress. Crop Sci., 46(6): 2598-2605.
15
EFFECT OF ASAHI SL BIOSTIMULATOR ON
ORNAMENTAL AMARANTH (AMARANTHUS SPP.)
PLANTS EXPOSED TO SALINITY IN GROWING MEDIUM
Mariola Wrochna1, Barbara £ata1, Bo¿enna Borkowska2, Helena Gawroñska1
1
2
Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
Institute of Pomology and Floricutlure, Skierniewice, Poland
INTRODUCTION
Plants cultivation in urban areas meets several difficulties, which mostly result from
anthropopressure leading to acid rain, accumulation of heavy metals, soil degradation and
accumulation of particulate matter in air [Zimny 2004, Gawroñski, Gawroñska 2007,
Gawroñski et al. 2007]. In northern hemisphere there is also a problem of salinity due to
application of sodium chloride for deicing roads [Wrochna et al. 2005, Wrochna 2007].
Soil salinity causes reduction of biomass accumulation and adverse changes in physiological and biochemical processes of plants. It was stated that salinity lead to the decrease
of water potential in leaves (yw), loss of turgor, drop of relative water content (RWC)
[Morant-Manceau et al. 2004, Kacperska 2005] and decrease of photosynthesis rate,
which results both from stomata closure and from toxic effects of Na+ and Cl- ions on
mesophyll cells and chloroplasts [Ueda et al. 2002]. In salinity environment, both the
chlorophyll a fluorescence [Maxwell, Johnson 2000, Wrochna et al. 2007] and level of
reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase [Bartosz 1995, Foyer, Noctor 2000], the enzyme
activity of antioxidizing system changes [Munns 2002, Parida, Das 2005, Wrochna 2007]
and accumulation of osmoprotectants increases [Chen, Murata 2002, GwóŸdŸ 2004, Wrochna 2007]. These adverse changes eliminate from cultivation a wide range of plant species
sensitive to salinity and drought. Plants, which are able to impel a various protective
mechanisms minimizing salt stress effects, have the possibility to grow in sites with increased salt concentration. Therefore, in addition to selection and breeding toward increased
salinity tolerance also the attempts to use biostimulators are made, which by definition
should improve plant protective mechanisms. It is believed that biostimulators, including
Asahi SL, have a protective impact on plants thus, it seems important to study mechanisms underlying their mode of action. Results showed an increase of biomass accumulation by plants treated with biostimulators, which can be the effect of better development
of both the above ground part and roots [Djanaguiraman et al. 2004, Krajewska, Latkowska 2008, Wróbel, WoŸniak 2008], and more effective water and ions uptake [Zhao,
Oostherhuis, 1997, Maciejewski et al. 2008]. Biostimulators increase activity of antioxidizing system enzymes [Djanaguiraman et al. 2004], accelerate transport of electrons in
photosynthesis process and flow of assimilates in a plant [Chitu et al.1998]. All the men
16
tioned above changes due to biostymulators application might have a protective impact on
processes disturbed by salinity.
The study objective was the assessment of whether and to what extent Asahi SL
stimulator has a protective effects on plants growing under increased salt concentration
in growing medium.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study object were plants of 3 varieties of ornamental amaranth: Amaranthus
paniculatus L. `Copper Mountain` and `Monarch` and Amaranthus caudatus L. `Pony
Tail`. Experiments were carried out at the Laboratory of Basic Research of Horticulture,
Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WUSL), except for: (1) measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence a conducted in
Physiology Department of the Institute of Pomology and Floriculture in Skierniewice, (2)
determination of ions concentration in plant material carried out in Center of Analysis of
WULS.
Two experiments were carried out under controlled conditions in Faculty greenhouses. In both experiments a uniform four-week-old seedlings of amaranth were transplanted either to substrate or hydroponics culture and agricultural practices were applied
as needed.
EFFECTS OF ASAHI SL BIOSTIMULATOR ON BIOMASS PRODUCTION
AND ACCUMULATION OF SELECTED IONS
In this experiment, seedlings of `Copper Mountain` and `Pony Tail` were planted in
pots (O16 cm), filled with 1 dm-3 of peat and sand mixture (3:1 v/v). The substrate was
prepared to have pH 6.5 (using 12 kg of agricultural chalk per 1 m3), and the content of
mineral elements respectively to the level of: N-310 mg . dm-3, P-100 mg . dm-3, K-400
mg . dm-3, Mg – 110 mg . dm-3 (MIS 3 p. A). Microelements were added in the form of
MIS 3. Salinity of this substrate reached 2 g NaCl . dm-3 (unit used in agriculture). Tenweek-old plants were treated with deicing salt (98% NaCl) in concentrations of 100
and 240 mM, and half of plants were sprayed with 0.1% solution of Asahi SL. After 14
days plants were harvested and fresh weight of above ground part was recorded.
Immediately after harvesting, the plants were oven dried for 24 h at 105oC and then for
72 h at 75oC. After drying and weighing the plant material was grinded in a grinder
(W¯ 1). Sub-samples (1 g) of powdered material were dry mineralized in muffle stove
(Nobertherm) in temperature of 450oC, dissolved in 0.5 mole HCI. The concentration
of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry FAAS
and P3+ by the method of ICP-AES. Level of Cl– ions was determined by Moohr`s
titration method after extraction with water from 1 g of dry, powdered plant material
and total nitrogen with Kieydahl method.
17
EFFECT OF ASAHI SL BIOSTIMULATOR ON SELECTED PHYSIOLOGICAL
AND BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES
In this experiment, seedlings of `Copper Mountain`, `Monarch` and `Pony Tail` were
placed in hydroponics, where the plants grew for subsequent 6 weeks in Hoagland`s
nutrients solution, in which salt concentration was 3 g NaCl dm-3. After that time, half of
plants was sprayed with 0.1% of Asahi SL preparation and 17 or 50 mM of NaCl was
added to the medium. After 16 days of treatment, the plants were harvested, dried and
weighed as in experiment 1st. Data for the following processes and parameters were
collected during the experiment:
– efficiency of photosynthetic apparatus based on: chlorophyll content (Chlorophyll
Content Meter CCM-200, Opti-Science, USA) and chlorophyll a fluorescence i.e.:
Yield, Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo, Fo/Fm, qP, qN, and NPQ (MINI-PAM, Walz, Germany),
– Relative Water Content,
– membrane integrity (conductometrically, MultiLevel 1, WTW, Germany),
– level of superoxide anion-radical (O2°-) by spectrometry (UV/VIS Spectrometer
Lambda Bio 10, Perkin Elmer),
– activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) [Nakano, Asada 1987], catalase (CAT) [Beers 1952], glutation reductase (GR) [Foyer, Halliwel 1976] by spectrometry (UV/
VIS Spectrometer Lambda Bio 10, Perkin Elmer).
Level of O2°-, and activity of APX, CAT and GR were measured at wave lengths of
580, 240, 290 and 340 nm respectively.
In both experiments the controls were plants without NaCl and not treated with
Asahi SL.
Results were subjected to statistical analysis using the two- and three-factorial analyses of variance ANOVA of Statgraphics 4.1 Plus. Significance of differences between
the treatments was assessed with t-Student test at a £ 0.05. The data present means
from five (experiment 1) or four (experiment 2) biological replications (single plant) and
each measurement was repeated twice on separate sub-sample.
RESULTS
Plant exposure to salinity in growing medium resulted in adverse changes manifested
by strong wilting followed by drying of edges of leaf blades particularly in older leaves.
Besides, the visual symptoms of salt impact, also a significant adverse effects of increased salinity on all studied physiological and biochemical processes were recorded.
Application of Asahi SL biostimulators, in general, decreased negative effects of salt
stress (Photo 1).
18
A
–Asahi SL
B
+ASAHI SL
–Asahi SL
+ASAHI SL
PHOTO 1. EFFECT OF ASAHI SL ON A. PANICULATUS `OPPER MOUNTAIN` PLANTS GROWING FOR
7 DAYS IN PRESENCE OF 100 (A) And 240 (B) mM of NaCl
Fotografia 1. Wp³yw Asahi SL na roœliny A. paniculatus `Copper Mountain` rosn¹cych przez 7 dni w
obecnoœci 100 (A) i 240 (B) mM NaCl
EFFECT OF ASAHI SL BIOSTIMULATOR ON BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND
SELECTED IONS ACCUMULATION
Increase of salinity reduced accumulation of both fresh weight and dry matter while
application of Asahi SL biostimulator, in most cases, increased it. Fresh weight increased
mostly in Asahi SL treated plants of `Pony Tail` growing without salt (33% of untreated).
However, in plants of `Copper Mountain` it was lower than in control (by ~5%) (Fig. 1).
Accumulation of dry matter also increased after Asahi SL application, but in some treatments with Asahi SL it was also slightly lower (Fig. 2).
Salinity of growing medium caused multiple increase in the amount of accumulated
toxic Na+ (even over 100 fold) and Cl- ions and changes in concentration of macroelements.
Reaction of tested genotypes of amaranths on spraying with Asahi SL depended on the
cultivar. Thus, in plants of `Pony Tail` decrease of Na+ and Cl- accumulation was noted
along with increase of accumulation of other tested ions, particularly in the highest applied
salt concentration (Tab. 1). That resulted in smaller changes in proportion of K+/Na+ than
it was in case of the plants growing in salinity environment but not treated with Asahi SL
(from 14.78 to 0.74 in control and from 11. 27 to 0.97 after treatment with Asahi SL).
Similar changes were recorded in proportion of sum of K++Ca2++Mg2+/Na+ (Tab. 1).
However, in plants of `Copper Mountain` application of Asahi SL led to increased
accumulation of Na+ and Cl- and greater reduction of proportions of K+/Na+ from 52.33
to 0.90 and of K++Ca2++Mg2+/Na+ from 18.56 to 0.76 (Tab. 1).
Application of Asahi SL caused significant increase in calcium accumulation in plants
of both varieties (Tab. 1).
2.40
2.68
2.11
2.68
3.00
+
+
+
2 40
Kontrola
10 0
C ONTROL
NIRa = 0,05 dla odmi any
SOURC E:OWN STUD Y.
ród³o: badani a w³asne.
LSD a = 0,05 FOR SALINITY
NIRa = 0,05 dla stê¿eni a soli
LSD a = 0,05 FOR C ULTIVAR
5.05
4.12
0.20
4.12
33.94
13.15
83.03
65.63
3.03
28.78
31.38
65.65
71.05
2.60
1.68
0.70
0.25
0.20
2.68
2.70
2.63
2.63
2.43
+
+
-
Kontrola
10 0
2 40
1.84
LSD a = 0,05 FOR ASAHI SL
NIRa = 0,05 dla Asahi SL
PONY TAIl
MOUNTAIN
C OPPER
2.27
+
C ONTROL
5.42
6.64
5.42
79.20
65.70
137.70
128.00
28.80
79.90
78.60
112.30
117.00
26.60
23.60
18.80
1.20
1.47
1.20
25.82
27.11
27.94
32.16
22.40
33.88
30.33
29.54
32.16
22.27
23.35
22.25
5.77
7.07
5.77
69.00
45.66
61.11
63.74
34.24
47.67
42.48
58.83
53.73
38.39
31.18
36.63
0.39
0.39
0.39
5.68
5.33
4.84
4.85
5.78
6.09
5.53
4.58
5.12
5.55
4.63
4.87
0.29
0.36
0.29
4.76
3.62
3.39
3.71
3.11
3.87
2.93
3.53
3.48
3.15
3.15
3.07
7.32
7.32
8.96
2.03
3.47
0.74
0.97
11.28
1.66
1.33
0.90
0.76
14.78
18.56
52.33
10.24
10.24
12.54
2.96
5.94
1.13
1.48
20.57
3.05
2.46
1.42
1.28
25.42
35.21
91.07
TAB LE 1. EFFEC T OF ASAH I SL ON ION AC C U MU LATION IN AB OVE GR OU N D PLAN T PAR TS OF OR N AMEN TAL AMAR AN TH PLAN TS. D ATA
AR E MEAN OF 6 R EPLIC ATION S (3 PLAN TS WITH TWO MEASU R EMEN TS IN EAC H )
Tabela 1.Wp³yw Asahi SL na akumulacjê jonów w czêœci ach nadzi emnych roœli n szar³atu ozdobnego. D ane przedstawi aj¹ œredni e z 6 powtórzeñ (3 roœli ny po
dwa pomi ary z ka¿dej)
ASAH I SL N -TOTAL % D .M.
Na
Cl
Ca
K
Mg
P
K : N a (K +C a+Mg): N a
C U LTIVAR
SALIN ITY
N-ca³kowi ty % s.m.
Odmi ana
Stê¿eni e soli
mg g-1 D .M.
[mM . N aC l]
mg g-1 s.m.
19
20
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FIGURE 1. EFFECT OF ASAHI SL ON FRESH WEIGHT OF AMARANTH PLANTS EXPOSED TO SALINITY
IN GROWING MEDIUM. PRESENTED DATA ARE MEAN ±SE, n = 5; -A, + A: CONCERNS TO PLANTS
NON TREATED AND TREATED WITH ASAHI SL RESPECTIVELY, * HORIZONTAL LINES PRESENT
LEVEL OF PARAMETER IN PLANTS NON TREATED ASAHI SL.
SOURCE: OWN STUDY.
Rysunek. 1. Wp³yw Asahi SL na akumulacjê œwie¿ej masy przez roœliny szar³atu eksponowane do
zasolenia w pod³o¿u. Dane przedstawiaj¹ œrednie ±SE, n = 5; -A, +A: odpowiednio w roœlinach opryskiwanych i nieopryskiwanych Asahi SL
* Linia pozioma prezentuje poziom czynnika dla roœlin kontrolnych
ród³o: badania w³asne.
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FIGURE 2. EFFECT OF ASAHI SL ON ACCUMULATION OF DRY MATTER BY AMARANTH PLANTS
EXPOSED TO SALINITY IN GROWING MEDIUM. PRESENTED DATA ARE MEAN ±SE, n = 5
EXPLANATIONS AND SOURCE: SEE FIG. 1.
Rysunek 2. Wp³yw Asahi SL na akumulacjê suchej masy przez roœliny szar³atu eksponowane do
zasolenia w pod³o¿u. Dane przedstawiaj¹ œrednie ±SE, n = 5
Objaœnienia i Ÿród³o: jak na rys. 1.
21
EFFECT OF ASAHI SL BIOSTIMULATOR ON SELECTED PHYSIOLOGICAL
AND BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES
Increased salinity in medium, shortly after treatment, increased efficiency of photosynthetic apparatus of stressed plants. Extension of exposure to salt caused decrease of
photosynthetic apparatus efficiency in plants of `Copper Mountain`, whilst in plants of
`Monarch` the higher efficiency was maintained.
Shortly after salt treatment of plants chlorophyll content increased and extension of
exposure time resulted in significant decrease in its content. Spraying plants with Asahi
SL caused increase of chlorophyll content comparing to untreated plants (Fig. 3). Moreover, higher chlorophyll content was maintained for some time after the salt treatment of
plant. To the largest extent, up to 270%, the chlorophyll content increased in plants of
`Monarch` growing in treatment of 50 mM NaCl + Asahi SL (Fig. 3).
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FIGURE 3. EFFECT OF ASAHI SL ON CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT IN LEAVES OF AMARANTH PLANTS
EXPOSED TO SALINITY IN GROWING MEDIUM. DATA ARE MEAN OF 8 REPLICATIONS (4 PLANTS
WITH TWO MEASUREMENTS IN EACH)
EXPLANATIONS AND SOURCE: SEE FIG. 1.
Rysunek 3. Wp³yw Asahi SL na zawartoœæ chlorofilu w liœciach roœlin szar³atu eksponowanych do
zasolenia w po¿ywce. Dane przedstawiaj¹ œrednie z 8 powtórzeñ (4 roœliny po dwa pomiary w ka¿dej)
Objaœnienia i Ÿród³o: jak na rys. 1.
Plant exposure to salinity in growing medium, shortly after treatment also caused
positive changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence, but again its extension resulted in adverse
changes, particularly in `Copper Mountain`. That is seen as reduction of actual photochemical quantum yield (Yield), reduction of photochemical quenching (qP) with simultaneous increase of energy loss as heat (NPQ) and fluorescence (qN).
Application of Asahi SL, to some extent, mitigate the effects of salt stress effects. In
plants sprayed with biostimulator, both decrease and increase of Yield took place (Fig. 4
50
17
LSD a = 0.05 FOR SALINITY
NIRa = 0.05 dla stê¿eni a soli
LSD a = 0.05 FOR C ULTIVAR
NIRa = 0.05 dla odmi any
LSD a = 0.05 FOR TIME TREATMENT
NIRa = 0.05 dla zabi egu
SOURC E:OWN STUD Y.
ród³o: badani a w³asne.
LSD a = 0.05 FOR ASAHI SL
NIRa = 0.05 dla Asahi SL
PONY TAIL
+
+
0.417
0.511
0.296
0.495
0.430
0.521
0.309
0.499
0.488
0.440
0.442
0.543
qN = 0.0258;
qN = 0.0258;
qN = 0.0258;
qP = 0.0240;
qP = 0.0240;
0.486
0.372
0.378
0.402
NPQ = 0.0510
NPQ = 0.0510
NPQ = 0.0510
NPQ = 0.0416
0.595
0.640
0.739
0.762
qN = 0.0210;
0.478
0.490
0.552
0.562
qP = 0.0240;
qP = 0.0196;
0.497
0.675
0.345
0.607
0.559
0.486
0.707
0.644
0.804
0.655
1.186
1.061
TAB LE 2. EFFEC T OF ASAH I SL ON AB SOR B ED EN ER GY D ISTR IB U TION B Y LEAVES OF OR N AMEN TAL AMAR AN TH PLAN TS. D ATA AR E
MEAN OF 8 R EPLIC ATION S (4 PLAN TS WITH TWO MEASU R EMEN TS IN EAC H )
Tabela 2. Wp³yw Asahi SL na rozdzi a³ zaabsorbowanej energi i przez li œci e roœli n szar³atu ozdobnego. D ane przedstawi aj¹ œredni e z 8 powtórzeñ
(4 roœli ny po dwa pomi ary w ka¿dej)
C U LTIVAR
SALIN ITY
ASAH I SL
TIME AFTER ASAH I SL APPLIC ATION /C zas dzi a³ani a Asahi SL
Odmi ana
Stê¿eni e soli
1
D
A
Y
/ 1 dzi eñ
8 D AYS/8 dni
15 D AYS/15 dni
[mM . N aC l]
qP
qN
N PQ
qP
qN
N PQ
qP
qN
N PQ
0.411
0.447
0.549
0.513
0.431
0.538
0.416
0.512
0.709
C ONTROL
Kontrola
+
0.340
0.323
0.359
0.467
0.442
0.552
0.399
0.500
0.654
0.414
0.397
0.456
0.430
0.494
0.608
0.401
0.539
0.806
C OPPER MOUNTAIN
17
+
0.381
0.409
0.475
0.433
0.511
0.662
0.399
0.521
0.732
0.375
0.332
0.357
0.406
0.644
0.918
0.402
0.705
1.226
50
+
0.446
0.453
0.560
0.428
0.530
0.661
0.374
0.608
0.890
C ONTROL
0.362
0.413
0.468
0.512
0.525
0.705
0.357
0.397
0.469
Kontrola
+
0.372
0.414
0.477
0.412
0.415
0.483
0.428
0.410
0.506
0.410
0.431
0.490
0.508
0.525
0.706
0.420
0.407
0.495
MONARC H
17
+
0.412
0.441
0.528
0.454
0.499
0.642
0.394
0.315
0.334
0.414
0.511
0.614
0.474
0.522
0.695
0.434
0.460
0.598
50
+
0.433
0.422
0.486
0.526
0.581
0.834
0.351
0.448
0.554
0.334
0.382
0.396
0.584
0.422
0.496
0.483
0.476
0.621
C ONTROL
Kontrola
+
0.405
0.462
0.549
0.470
0.445
0.544
0.356
0.482
0.605
22
23
A
RELATIVE CONTENENT/wartoœci wzglêdne
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RELATIVE CONTENENT/wartoœci wzglêdne
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RELATIVE CONTENENT/wartoœci wzglêdne
C
/6'
1,5
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FIGURE 4. EFFECT OF ASAHI SL ON ACTUAL PHOTOCHEMICAL QUANTUM EFFICENCY (YIELD) IN
LEAVES OF THREE CULTIVARS OF AMARANTH PLANT: `COPPER MOUNTAIN` (A), `MONARCH` (B),
`PONY TAIL` (C) EXPOSED TO SALINITY IN MEDIUM. DATA ARE MEAN OF 8 REPLICATIONS (4
PLANTS WITH TWO MEASUREMENTS IN EACH)
EXPLANATIONS AND SOURCE: SEE FIG. 1.
Rysunek 4. Wp³yw Asahi SL na rzeczywist¹ wydajnoœæ fotochemiczn¹ (Yield) w liœciach roœlin trzech
odmian szar³atu: `Copper Mountain` (A), `Monarch` (B), `Pony Tail` (C) eksponowanych do zasolenia w
po¿ywce. Dane przedstawiaj¹ œrednie z 8 powtórzeñ (4 roœliny po dwa pomiary w ka¿dej)
Objaœnienia i Ÿród³o: jak na rys. 1.
A, B, C). The greatest changes in this parameter were noted in plants of `Pony Tail`,
in which 15 days after Asahi SL application Yield increased by 23% (50 mM NaCl +
Asahi SL) but in combination control + Asahi SL it was lower by 26%.
Salinity also contributed to significant decrease of water splitiny coeficient (Fv/Fo),
and coeficient of plant adaptation to stress conditions (Fo/Fm). These coeficients decreased to the largest extent in plants of `Copper Mountain` treated with salt. Application of
biostimulator usually resulted in reduction of negative changes in water splitiny system
and increase of the level of plants adaptation to stress conditions with the plants of `Monarch` having the best reaction to Asahi SL treatment (Tab. 2).
Asahi SL also led to increase of energy used in photosynthesis dark phase (Tab. 3).
It increased especially shortly after spraying the plants with biostimulator (1 and 8 days).
Photochemical quenching changed the most in plants of the `Pony Tail` where, one day
after the treatment with 50 mM of NaCl qP increased from 0.296 (without Asahi) to
0.495 after Asahi SL application and on day 8th from 0.442 to 0.543. Amount of emitted
energy in the form of fluorescence and heat in plants sprayed with Asahi SL usually
decreased, in particular at long exposure (Tab. 3).
Out of all measured Chl a fluorescence coeficients, the potential photochemical yield
(Fv/Fm) changed the least under the salt influence. However, slight positive and maintained through the entire period of experiment, effect of Asahi SL on this parameter in
plants exposed to salt was also noted, particularly in `Monarch`.
LSD a = 0.05 FOR SALINITY
NIRa = 0.05 dla stê¿eni a soli
LSD a = 0.05 FOR C ULTIVAR
NIRa = 0.05 dla odmi any
LSD a = 0.05 FOR TIME TREATMENT
NIRa = 0.05 dla zabi egu
SOURC E:OWN STUD Y.
ród³o: badani a w³asne.
Fv/Fo = 0.1153;
Fv/Fo = 0.1153;
Fv/Fo = 0.1153;
Fv/Fm = 0.00732;
Fv/Fm = 0.00732;
Fv/Fm = 0.00732;
Fm/Fo = 0.1153
Fm/Fo = 0.1153
Fm/Fo = 0.1153
TAB LE 3. EFFEC T OF ASAH I SL ON C H LOR OPH YLL A FLU OR ESC EN C E IN LEAVES OF OR N AMEN TAL AMAR AN TH PLAN TS. D ATA AR E
MEAN OF 8 R EPLIC ATION S (4 PLAN TS WITH TWO MEASU R EMEN TS IN EAC H )
Tabela 3. Wp³yw Asahi SL na wskaŸni ki fluorescencji chlorofi lu a li œci szar³atu ozdobnego. D ane przedstawi aj¹ œredni e z 8 powtórzeñ (4 roœli ny po dwa
pomi ary w ka¿dej)
C U LTIVAR
SALIN ITY
ASAH I SL
TIME AFTER ASAH I SL APLIC ATION /C zas dzi a³ani a Asahi SL
Odmi ana
Stê¿eni e soli
1
D
A
Y
/
1 dzi eñ
8 D AYS/8 dni
15 D AYS/15 dni
[mM . N aC l]
Fv/Fm
Fm/Fo
Fv/Fo
Fv/Fm
Fm/Fo
Fv/Fo
Fv/Fm
Fm/Fo
Fv/Fo
0.764
4.279
3.279
0.798
4.979
3.979
0.804
5.122
4.122
C ONTROL
Kontrola
+
0.788
4.516
3.516
0.794
4.810
3.810
0.800
5.006
4.006
0.780
4.578
3.578
0.785
4.670
3.670
0.802
5.056
4.056
C OPPER MOUNTAIN
17
+
0.775
4.492
3.492
0.771
4.497
3.497
0.806
5.160
4.160
0.771
4.377
3.377
0.733
3.868
2.868
0.777
4.538
3.538
50
+
0.780
4.487
4.487
0.717
3.775
2.775
0.743
3.917
2.917
C ONTROL
0.755
4.100
3.100
0.782
4.609
3.609
0.791
4.796
3.796
Kontrola
+
0.777
4.504
3.504
0.778
4.508
3.508
0.788
4.731
3.731
0.758
4.165
3.165
0.778
4.519
3.519
0.786
4.687
3.687
MONARC H
17
+
0.775
4.462
3.462
0.776
4.463
3.463
0.798
4.580
3.580
0.739
3.973
2.973
0.782
4.597
3.597
0.779
4.542
3.542
50
+
0.772
4.405
3.405
0.781
4.580
3.580
0.798
4.631
3.631
0.798
4.979
3.979
0.778
4.507
3.507
0.800
4.999
3.999
C ONTROL
Kontrola
+
0.794
4.810
3.810
0.783
4.634
3.634
0.778
4.568
3.568
0.760
4.213
3.213
0.790
4.787
3.787
0.785
4.715
3.715
PONY TAIL
17
+
0.771
4.394
3.394
0.788
4.740
3.740
0.800
5.008
4.008
0.776
4.480
3.480
0.766
4.333
3.333
0.767
4.399
3.399
50
+
0.753
4.094
3.094
0.755
4.246
3.246
0.788
4.753
3.753
LSD a = 0.05 FOR ASAHI SL
Fv/Fm= 0.0060;
Fv/Fo = 0.0941;
Fm/Fo = 0.0941
NIRa = 0.05 dla Asahi SL
25
26
Plant water status was negatively affected by salinity of growing medium as RWC
was evidently lower. Application of Asahi SL caused both slight increase (`Copper Mountain` and `Pony Tail`, 17 mM NaCl + Asahi SL) and decrease of RWC (`Copper Mountain`, 50 mM NaCl + Asahi SL, `Monarch`, control + Asahi SL) (Fig. 5).
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FIGURE 5. EFFECT OF ASAHI SL ON RWC IN LEAVES OF AMARANTH PLANTS EXPOSED TO SALINITY IN GROWING MEDIUM. DATA ARE MEAN OF 8 REPLICATIONS (4 PLANTS WITH TWO MEASUREMENTS IN EACH)
EXPLANATIONS AND SOURCE: SEE FIG. 1.
Rysunek 5. Wp³yw Asahi SL na RWC w liœciach roœlin szar³atu eksponowanych do zasolenia w po¿ywce. Dane przedstawiaj¹ œrednie z 8 powtórzeñ (4 roœliny po dwa pomiary w ka¿dej)
Objaœnienia i Ÿród³o: jak na rys. 1.
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FIGURE 6. EFFECT OF ASAHI SL ON LEVEL OF CYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANES DAMAGE IN LEAVES
OF AMARANTH PLANTS EXPOSED TO SALINITY IN GROWING MEDIUM. DATA ARE MEAN OF 8
REPLICATIONS (4 PLANTS WITH TWO MEASUREMENTS IN EACH)
EXPLANATIONS AND SOURCE: SEE FIG. 1.
Rysunek 6. Wp³yw Asahi SL na stopieñ uszkodzeñ b³on cytoplazmatycznych w liœciach roœlin szar³atu
eksponowanych do zasolenia w po¿ywce. Dane przedstawiaj¹ œrednie z 8 powtórzeñ (4 roœliny po
dwa pomiary w ka¿dej)
Objaœnienia i Ÿród³o: jak na rys. 1.
27
As a result of salinity, also the membrane integrity was disrupted and spraying plants
with Asahi SL, in general, resulted in reduction of level of membrane injury with `Monarch` having the best reaction. On the other hand, in plants of `Copper Mountain`, usually an increase of membrane injury was noted in Asahi SL treated plants (Fig. 6).
Salinity contributed to increase of superoxide anion-radical level which was fewtimes higher in the treated plants than in control. Spraying plants with Asahi SL, usually,
caused further increase of O2°- level. To smaller extent, from 1 to 30%, the level of O2°increased in plants of `Monarch` and the most significantly, above 200%, in plants of
`Copper Mountain` (Fig. 7).
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FIGURE 7. EFFECT OF ASAHI SL ON LEVEL OF SUPEROXIDE ANION-RADICAL IN LEAVES OF AMARANTH PLANTS EXPOSED TO SALINITY IN GROWING MEDIUM. DATA ARE MEAN OF 6 REPLICATIONS (3 PLANTS WITH TWO MEASUREMENTS IN EACH)
EXPLANATIONS AND SOURCE: SEE FIG. 1.
Rysunek 7. Wp³yw Asahi SL na poziom anionorodnika ponadtlenkowego w liœciach roœlin szar³atu
eksponowanych do zasolenia w po¿ywce. Dane przedstawiaj¹ œrednie z 6 powtórzeñ (3 roœliny po
dwa pomiary w ka¿dej)
Objaœnienia i Ÿród³o: jak na rys. 1.
Higher level of superoxide anion-radical caused increase of activity enzymes of antioxidizing system i.e.: APX, CAT and GR. Activity level of these enzymes was significantly higher in plants treated than in untreated with Asahi SL and exceeded increase of O2°level (Fig.s 8A, B, C). From the tested enzymes, the activity of catalase increased to the
smallest extent (from 1 to 23% in `Copper Mountain` on day 12th, 50 mM NaCl + Asahi
SL and on day 6th, 17 mM NaCl) (Fig. 8B), and activity of glutation reductase increased
the most, by 307% (`Monarch`, 6 days 17 mM NaCl + Asahi SL) (Fig. 8C).
28
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FIGURE 8. EFFECT OF ASAHI SL ON ACTIVITY OF ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE (A), CATALASE (B),
GLUTATION REDUCTASE (C) IN LEAVES OF AMARANTH PLANTS EXPOSED TO SALINITY IN GROWING MEDIUM. DATA ARE MEAN OF 6 REPLICATIONS (3 PLANTS WITH TWO MEASUREMENTS IN
EACH)
EXPLANATIONS AND SOURCE: SEE FIG. 1.
Rysunek 8. Wp³yw Asahi SL na aktywnoœæ peroksydazy askorbinianowej (A), katalazy (B), reduktazy
glutationowej (C) w liœciach roœlin szar³atu eksponowanych do zasolenia w po¿ywce. Dane przedstawiaj¹ œrednie z 6 powtórzeñ (3 roœliny po dwa pomiary z ka¿dej)
Objaœnienia i Ÿród³o: jak na rys. 1.
29
DISCUSSION
Salinity in growing medium had negative impact on plants that was manifested by
decrease of biomass accumulation and impairment of most of studied physiological and
biochemical processes, which is in agreement with results of many authors studying salt
influence on plants [Munns 2002, Chaparzadeh et al. 2004, Wrochna 2007].
Decrease of accumulation of biomass in plants growing in the environment of increased soil salinity results both from lower content of water in plants and from toxic impact
of Na+ and Cl- ions as well as from limited substrates and photosynthetic products. Results of this work show that the negative impact of salt stress was usually reduced after
application of Asahi SL, which among others led to increase of biomass production. It
was recorded for `Copper Mountain` and `Pony Tail`, particularly in plants treated with
NaCl, proving participation of the preparation in mitigation of salinity stress effects and
which was also noted by Cambri [2008] in A. thaliana plants treated with Aminoplant.
Similar reaction was noted also by Zhao and Oostherhuis [1997] in cotton plants growing
under drought stress and treated with another biostimulator – PGR IV.
Asahi SL caused changes in ions accumulation, in particular of Na+ and Cl-. Previous
findings [Taiz, Zeiger 2002, Niu, Rodriguez 2006, Navarro et al. 2007, Wrochna 2007]
showed that accumulation of these ions increases with the increase of salinity in soil.
Application of biostimulator changed accumulation of ions but the response depended on
cultivar. In this work in plants of `Pony Tail` Na+ and Cl- accumulation decreased while in
`Copper Mountain` the opposite was true, accumulation of these ions increased as compared to plants untreated with Asahi SL. Our results are in agreement with those of Chitu
et al. [1998] and Cambri [2008] for Asahi SL and Aminoplant biostimulators respectively,
what indicates stabilization of plant ion status by biostimulators. Smaller accumulation of
sodium and chloride ions in `Pony Tail` resulted in smaller proportion of K+/Na+ and sum
of K++Ca2++Mg2+/Na+, which according to Ashraf et al. [2001] and Alian et al. [2000]
contributes to a better tolerance of salinity by plants.
The study also proved that salinity led to significant increase of Ca+2 accumulation.
Calcium is a macroelement that is necessary for proper plant growth and development,
playing many important physiological functions. It is a secondary messenger of signal
transduction pathway, takes part in maintenance of proper cell walls flexibility [Tretyn
1994] and in plants coping with stress by initiating stress protective mechanisms of a plant
[Bressan, Hasegawa 1998, Verslues P.E. et al. 2006]. Since spraying salt treated plants
with Asahi SL leads to further increase of Ca2+ we may assume that Asahi SL also
strengthens plants protective responses against salt stress mediated by calcium. Similarly
to us Zhao and Oostherhuis [1997] also reported increase of Ca+2 accumulation in cotton
plants growing under drought stress after PGR IV application what supports our hypothesis on role of biostimulators in plant response to stresses via Ca+2 involvement.
Application of Asahi SL had also a positive impact on most of studied photosynthetic
apparatus efficiency parameters. Recorded in this study the increase of chlorophyll content shortly after plant exposure to salinity and decrease later on is a phenomenon known
in literature [Sivritepe et al. 2005, Santos 2004], but fact that Asahi SL application resulted in longer maintenance of higher chlorophyll content is a new finding.
30
Actual photochemical quantum yield (Yield) usually decreased in plants treated with
salt and Asahi SL corresponds with the results obtained by Gawlik and Go³êbiowska
[2008] who also showed slight decrease of Yield in pea after application of biostimulator.
However, it is worth adding, that in our study plant of `Pony Tails` grown under higher
salinity level and treated with Asahi SL had higher Yield comparing to plants untreated
and it lasted for the entire period of experiment.
Biostimulator also modifies distribution of energy absorbed by a leaf. In plants growing in salinity more absorbed energy is lost as heat and fluorescence. After Asahi SL
treatment increase of energy used in the photosynthesis dark phase with simultaneous
decrease of loss for fluorescence and heat was noted which, similarly to Yield case, was
especially evident in `Pony Tail` in treatment of 50 mM NaCl + Asahi SL.
Asahi SL also improves the ability of plants acclimation to salt stress via improved
water splitting reaction.
Although the changes of potential photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), which is an inert
and rather stable coefficient, were evidently lower, also in this case, a slight positive
effect of Asahi SL was noted, which was also maintained during a longer exposure. This
may indicate increased activity of protective processes in plant response to salt stress.
Protective function of Asahi SL was also expressed by improvement of RWC, which
in some cases increased, though insignificantly. In the studies with A. thaliana Gawroñska et al. [2008] also noted increase of RWC in plants treated with Asahi SL despite of
simultaneous increase of transpiration, which according to the authors indicates improvement of plant water status probably through stimulation of water uptake by roots.
In plants exposed to salinity membrane integrity often is disrupted [Wrochna 2007
and references therein]. After application of the biostimulator, the changes in level of
membrane injuries caused by salinity were noted, and in plants of `Monarch` treated with
Asahi SL they were smaller than in untreated. However, in plants of `Copper Mountain`
treated with salt and sprayed with Asahi SL membrane injuries were greater what was
probably due to higher, in this variety, accumulation of Na+ and Cl- ions, both known of
having toxic effects on cell structures.
Probably, the larger membranes injuries in plants grown under salinity were also due
to increased level of O2°- noted in this study. Application of Asahi SL caused further
increase of O2°- level. On the other hand, in response to increased level of O2°-, plants
treated with Asahi SL had the activity of tested enzymes of anti-oxidizing system, significantly higher than in untreated plants, and – what should be underlined - it markedly
exceed increase of O2°-. Increase of activity of enzymes of anti-oxidizing system after
plants treatment with Atonik biostimulator was also noted by Djanaguiraman et al. [2004].
Interesting is the fact that `Pony Tail` maintained the high activity of tested enzymes also
during long exposure to salt and this corresponds to lower accumulation of toxic ions of
Na+ and Cl- and was reflected by positive changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence.
To sum up, results obtained in this study confirm a role of Asahi SL biostimulator in
mitigation of salinity stress effects through increase of protective processes therefore it
might be suggested that the preparation could be applied for increasing plants ability to
cope with salinity stress, which might occur in urban areas.
31
CONCLUSIONS
1. Application of Asahi SL decreased negative effects of salinity stress, via increased
efficiency of photosynthetic apparatus and higher biomass production.
2. Depending on a cultivar, Asahi SL caused both decrease and increase of toxic Na+
and Cl- ions accumulation leading to changes in proportion of K+/Na+ and sum of
cations/Na+. These changes corresponded to changes in level of salinity tolerance
due to biostimulator application.
3. Asahi SL biostimulator contributed to decrease of the salinity generated oxidation
stress effects by increasing the activity of anti-oxidizing system enzymes: APX, CAT,
GR to greater extent than increase of O2°- level.
4. Cultivars varied in response to treatment with Asahi SL, with `Monarch` showing the
best reaction and `Copper Mountain` the weakest.
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33
THE EFFECTS OF BIOSTIMULATORS ASAHI SL AND
SIAPTON 10L ON THE GROWTH OF BERGENIA
CORDIFOLIA ((HAW.) STERNB.) `ROTBLUM` AND HOSTA
(TRATT.) `SUM AND SUBSTANCE` AND `MINUTEMAN`
Justyna Krajewska, Monika J. Latkowska
Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
INTRODUCTION
Biostimulants containing natural substances promote plant growth and increase yields.
They are safe for the environment and consumers, and are used in horticulture for fruit
and vegetable production. Little information about the influence of biostimulants on the
growth and development of ornamental plants is still available.
Natural growth stimulants may promote production of endogenous growth regulators,
improve uptake of mineral nutrients from soil, induce lignification of cell walls, influence
energy production and nitrogen metabolism in plant. Biostimulants may enhance plant
resistance to disadvantegous environmental factors, i.e.: drought, temperature shock, frost,
environment pollution, herbicide stress [Cholewiñski 1998, Mikos-Bielak, Kukie³ka 2000,
Saniewska 2000].
Biostimulants may improve quality of young plants produced in the nurseries, enhance their stress hardiness and adaptation to the urban environment. The aim of the study
was to evaluate the effect of biostimulators Asahi SL and Siapton 10L on the growth of
young plants of two perennials: Hosta sp. and Bergenia cordifolia, widely used in the
urban greens and private gardens for their decorative foliage.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Effects of Siapton 10L and Asahi SL on growth of Bergenia cordifolia `Rotblum`
and two Hosta sp. cultivars (`Sum and Substance` and `Minuteman`) were studied. Hosta sp. plants derived from microcuttings 10 months after rooting and 3-month old seedlings of Bergenia cordifolia were used in the experiments. Young plants were grown
in plastic pots in mixture of leach soil, bark and peat (2:1:1). Plants were sprayed 4 or 8
times with water solutions of Siapton (0,2%) and Asahi SL (0,1%), applied separately or
together in 1 or 2 week interval and 25 plants of each cultivar were used per treatment.
In the first year of growing and after overwintering (in the greenhouse or outside), growth
of shoots, leaves and roots was evaluated. Chlorophyll a+ b and protein content was determined in the plant material collected one month after spraying. Chlorophyll content was determined according to Moran and Porath [1980] in Inskeep`s and Bloom`s modification [1985].
Content of chlorophyll a+b was measured by means of the spectrophotometer UV-1601PC
34
at the wavelength of 647 and 664 nm. Soluble protein content was determined according
to Bradford [1976] and measured at the wavelength of 595 nm.
Results of the experiments were analyzed by means of 1-factor variance analysis
with Statgraphics Plus 5.0. Differences between the means were compared with Duncan`s test, at the level of significance a = 0,05.
RESULTS
Effects of the biostimulants on plant growth and quality depended on the number of
applications, plant species and cultivar. In the first year of plant growth Siapton sprays
resulted in the increase of leaf area and root fresh weight in Hosta `Sum and Substance`
(Tab. 1). Siapton applied 4 times stimulated also root growth in this cultivar. In Hosta
`Minuteman` an increased leaf number was noted in plants treated 4 times with Asahi or
Siapton (Tab. 2). Leaves of plants sprayed 4 times with Asahi were also bigger. Plants of
Bergenia cordifolia sprayed 8 times with Siapton had larger leaves and produced more
roots (Tab. 3). Interchangeable application of Asahi and Siapton stimulated production of
longer roots in this species.
Biostimulants affected the growth of plants after overwintering. They resulted in an
increase of leaf fresh weight and size of leaves as well as of root fresh weight in plants
grown in the greenhouse or outdoors (Tab. 4-9). In Hosta `Sum and Substance` Asahi and
Siapton improved root growth and stimulate leaf growth resulting in increased leaf fresh
weight (Tab. 4 and 5). Siapton applied alone or together with Asahi resulted in an increase
of fresh weight of leaves in Hosta `Minuteman` plants overwintered in the cold greenhouse
TAB LE 1. TH E IN FLU EN C E OF B IOSTIMU LAN TS ON TH E GR OWTH OF H OSTA `SU M AN D
SU B STAN C E` IN TH E FIR ST YEAR OF GR OWIN G
Tabela 1. Wp³yw bi ostymulatorów na wzrost H osta `Sum and Substance` w pi erwszym roku uprawy
TR EATPLAN T
LEAF
LEN GTH
LEAF
WID TH
R OOT
R OOT
R OOT
MEN T
H EIGH T N U MB ER OF LEAF FR ESH
OF LEAF N U MB ER LEN GTH FR ESH
Kombi nacja WysokoϾ
Li czba
B LAD E
WEIGH T
B LAD E
Li czba
D ³ugoœæ WEIGH T
roœli n
li œci
D ³ugoœæ
Œwi e¿a
SzerokoϾ
korzeni
korzeni
Œwi e¿a
[cm]
blaszki
masa li œci
blaszki
[cm]
masa
li œci owej
[g]
li œci owej
korzeni
[cm]
[cm]
[g]
C*
42.2 bc** 11.20 a
19.28 b
38.10 a
8.19 b
20.2 b
30.9 a 37.81 ab
A/1
38.48 b
11.06 a
19.63 b
40.56 a
8.49 b
17.0 a
29.02 a 35.83 ab
A/2
43.56 c
12.2 a
22.81 c
58.07 b
9.45 c
21.2 b 33.16 ab
53.26 b
A/S
32.1 a
10.6 a
17.43 a
28.58 a
7.07 a
16.,0 a 31.76 ab
29.63 a
S/1
44.56 c
12.8 a
22.43 c
64.8 b
9.96 c
22.2 b 32.46 ab
88.87 c
S/2
42.5 bc
12.0 a
22.57 c
58.97 b
9.34 c
20.6 b
37.9 b
73.27 c
* C – C ONTROL: WATER SPRAY, A/1 – ASAHI SL APPLIED EVERY WEEK, A/2 – ASAHI SL APPLIED
EVERY 2ND WEEK, A/S – ASAHI SL AND SIAPTON APPLIED INTERC HANGEABLY, A/1 – SIAPTON
APPLIED EVERY WEEK, A/2 – SIAPTON APPLIED EVERY 2ND WEEK
** MEANS FOLLOWED BY THE SAME LETTER D O NOT D IFFER SIGNIFIC ANTLY AT THE LEVEL OF
SIGNIFIC ANC E a = 0,05
SOURC E: OWN STUD Y.
* C – kontrola, A/1 – Asahi SL apli kowane co tydzi eñ, A/2 – apli kowany co 2-gi tydzi eñ, A/S – Asahi SL i
Si apton apli kowany przemi enni e, S/1 – Si apton apli kowany co tydzi eñ, S/2 – Si apton co 2-gi tydzi eñ
**Œredni e oznaczone t¹ sam¹ li ter¹ ni e ró¿ni ¹ si ê i stotni e przy pozi omi e i stotnoœci a = 0,05
ród³o: badani a w³asne.
35
TAB LE 2. TH E IN FLU EN C E OF B IOSTIMU LAN TS ON TH E GR OWTH OF H OSTA `MIN U TEMAN ` IN
TH E FIR ST YEAR OF GR OWIN G
Tabela 2. Wp³yw bi ostymulatorów na wzrost H osta `Mi nuteman` w pi erwszym roku uprawy
TR EATPLAN T
LEAF
LEN GTH
WID TH
R OOT
R OOT
LEAF
R OOT
MEN T
H EIGH T N U MB ER OF LEAF OF LEAF N U MB ER LEN GTH FR ESH
FR ESH
Kombi nacja WysokoϾ
Li czba
B LAD E
B LAD E
Li czba
D ³ugoœæ WEIGH T WEIGH T
roœli n
li œci
D ³ugoœæ Szerokoœæ
korzeni
korzeni
Œwi e¿a
Œwi e¿a
[cm]
blaszki
blaszki
[cm]
masa li œci
masa
li œci owej
li œci owej
[g]
korzeni
[cm]
[cm]
[g]
C*
27.72 a**
10.2 a
12.73 a
A/1
29.34 a
13.4 ab
13.61 a
A/2
25.32 a
13.8 c
13.02 a
A/S
25.32 a
12.0 ab
13.46 a
S/1
27.08 a
12.0 ab
13.54 a
S/2
25.84 a
14.6 c
13.29 a
EXPLANATIONS AND SOURC E: SEE TAB. 1.
Objaœni eni a i Ÿród³o: jak w tab. 1.
6.79 ab
6.99 b
9.45 c
6.27 a
7.10 b
6.97 b
16.8
18.0
16.2
13.8
17.6
16.6
a
a
a
a
a
a
27.54 a
31.14 a
31.32 a
31.62 a
31.8 a
32.08 a
25.99
24.97
25.49
23.60
25.37
32.62
a
a
a
a
a
a
32.21 bc
16.65 a
23.06 ab
23.20 ab
37.88 c
35.67 bc
TAB LE 3. TH E IN FLU EN C E OF B IOSTIMU LAN TS ON TH E GR OWTH OF BER GEN I A C OR D I FOLI A
`R OTB LU M ` IN TH E FIR ST YEAR OF GR OWIN G
Tabela 3. Wp³yw bi ostymulatorów na wzrost Bergeni a cordi fol i a `Rotblum` w pi erwszym roku uprawy
TR EATPLAN T
LEAF
LEN GTH
LEAF WID TH OF ROOT
R OOT
R OOT
MEN T
H EIGH T N U MB ER OF LEAF FR ESH
LEAF
NUMBER LEN GTH FR ESH
Kombi nacja WysokoϾ
Li czba
B LAD E
WEIGH T
B LAD E
Li czba
D ³ugoœæ WEIGH T
roœli n
li œci
D ³ugoœæ
Œwi e¿a Szerokoœæ korzeni
korzeni
Œwi e¿a
[cm]
blaszki
masa li œci
blaszki
[cm]
masa
li œci owej
[g]
li œci owej
korzeni
[cm]
[cm]
[g]
C*
19.36 ab**
4.6 a
A/1
19.3 ab
5.0 a
A/2
20.7 b
5.6 a
A/S
19.56 ab
4.4 a
S/1
22.92 b
5.2 a
S/2
15.48 a
4.4 a
EXPLANATIONS AND SOURC E: SEE
Objaœni eni a i Ÿród³o: jak w tab. 1.
11.79 b
9.89 ab
11.63 b
11.67 b
13.69 c
9.21 a
TAB. 1.
21.46 ab
14.58 ab
17.72 ab
16.49 ab
24.40 b
8.60 a
8.53 b
7.40 ab
8.50 b
8.78 bc
10.17 c
6.09 a
6.0 a
9.0 ab
9.,0 ab
12.8 c
11.6 c
9.2 ab
18.36 ab
12.86 a
18.1 ab
25.76 c
22.28 bc
22.9 bc
21.43 b
6.13 a
8.13 a
10.76 a
12.08 ab
5.43 a
TAB LE 4. TH E IN FLU EN C E OF B IOSTIMU LAN TS ON TH E GR OWTH OF H OSTA ` SU M AN D
SU B STAN C E` PLAN TS OVER WIN TER IN G IN TH E C OLD GR EEN H OU SE
Tabela 4. Wp³yw bi ostymulatorów na wzrost roœli n H osta `Sum and Substance` zi muj¹cych w ni eogrzewanej
szklarni
TREATPLANT
LEAF
LENGTH WIDTH OF
LEAF
ROOT
ROOT
ROOT
MENT
HEIGHT NUMBER OF LEAF
LEAF
FRESH NUMBER LENGTH FRESH
Kombinacja WysokoϾ
Liczba
BLADE
BLADE
WEIGHT
Liczba
D³ugoœæ WEIGHT
roœlin
liœci
D³ugoœæ
SzerokoϾ
Œwie¿a
korzeni
korzeni
Œwie¿a
[cm]
blaszki
blaszki
masa liœci
[cm]
masa
liœciowej
liœciowej
[g]
korzeni
[cm]
[cm]
[g]
C*
57.6 c**
2.8 a
24.63 bc
A/1
55.3 bc
5.2 a
26.03 c
A/2
54.7 bc
5.0 a
24,47 b
A/S
44.6 a
8.2 b
21,33 a
S/1
55.2 bc
5.6 ab
24.43 b
S/2
51,4 b
4a
22.11 a
EXPLANATIONS AND SOURC E: SEE: TA.B. 1.
Objaœni eni a i Ÿród³o: jak w tab. 1.
19.47 cd
20.13 d
18.75 cd
13.42 a
18.23 c
15.97 b
73.35 ab
81.17 cd
93.07 e
76.92 bc
69.34 a
84.44 c
38.6 a
38.8 a
32.4 a
37.6 a
35.2 a
37.6 a
35.4
33.9
41.6
40.8
45.2
36.6
a
a
a
a
a
a
90,92 b
82.59 a
119.99 d
115.12 c
93.21 b
112.82 c
36
TAB LE 5. TH E IN FLU EN C E OF B IOSTIMU LAN TS ON TH E GR OWTH OF H OSTA `SU M AN D
SU B STAN C E` PLAN TS OVER WIN TER IN G OU TSID E
Tabela 5. Wp³yw bi ostymulatorów na wzrost roœli n H osta `Sum and Substance` zi muj¹cych na zewn¹trz
TREATPLANT
LEAF
LENGTH WIDTH OF
LEAF
ROOT
ROOT
ROOT
MENT
HEIGHT NUMBER OF LEAF
LEAF
FRESH NUMBER LENGTH FRESH
Kombinacja WysokoϾ
Liczba
BLADE
BLADE
WEIGHT
Liczba
D³ugoœæ WEIGHT
roœlin
liœci
D³ugoœæ
SzerokoϾ
Œwie¿a
korzeni
korzeni
Œwie¿a
[cm]
blaszki
blaszki
masa liœci
[cm]
masa
liœciowej
liœciowej
[g]
korzeni
[cm]
[cm]
[g]
C*
41.78 a
5.2 a
22.2 a
A/1
48.4 ab
5.6 a
23.63ab
A/2
48.8 ab
5.4 a
23.35ab
A/S
47 a b
6.4 a
23.61ab
S/1
52 b
6.6 a
25.55c
S/2
49.66 ab
6.4 a
24.59bc
EXPLANATIONS AND SOURC E: SEE: TA.B. 1.
Objaœni eni a i Ÿród³o: jak w tab. 1.
17.13 bc
18.61c
17.43bc
15 a
18.57 c
16.61 b
79.21 b
80.48 b
65.52 a
88.8 c
125.78 e
120.64 d
38 a
48 b c
47.2 bc
47.6 bc
49.2 c
42.8 ab
33.9 a
25.2 a
33.4 a
32.6 a
35.1 a
29.78 a
131.59 e
79.55 b
63.83 a
114.21 c
134.42 f
125.94 d
TAB LE 6. TH E IN FLU EN C E OF B IOSTIMU LAN TS ON TH E GR OWTH OF H OSTA `MIN U TEMAN `
PLAN TS OVER WIN TER IN G IN TH E C OLD GR EEN H OU SE
Tabela 6. Wp³yw bi ostymulatorów na wzrost roœli n H osta `Mi nuteman` zi muj¹cych w ni eogrzewanej szklarni
TR EATPLAN T
LEAF
LEN GTH
WID TH
LEAF
R OOT
R OOT
R OOT
MEN T
H EIGH T N U MB ER
OF LEAF
OF LEAF FR ESH N U MB ER LEN GTH FR ESH
Kombi nacja WysokoϾ
Li czba
B LAD E
B LAD E WEIGH T Li czba D ³ugoœæ WEIGH T
roœli n
li œci
D ³ugoœæ
Szerokoœæ Œwi e¿a
korzeni
korzeni
Œwi e¿a
[cm]
blaszki
blaszki
masa
[cm]
masa
li œci owej
li œci owej
li œci
korzeni
[cm]
[cm]
[g]
[g]
C*
30.4 a**
8.2 b
A/1
34.2 a
7 ab
A/2
33.2 a
6a
A/S
32 a
7.6 ab
S/1
30.7 a
6.6 ab
S/2
29.14 a
7.6 ab
EXPLANATIONS AND SOURC E: SEE
Objaœni eni a i Ÿród³o: jak w tab. 1.
12.23 a
14.13 b
13.75 b
12.41 a
12.23 a
12.27 a
TAB. 1.
8.82 a
10.93 b
9.83 a
8.93 a
9.77 a
8.93 a
61,02 a
74,50 b
58,95 a
74,14 b
90,90 d
83,17 c
23 a
26,4 a
24,4 a
26,2 a
24,4 a
28 a
35,6 ab
32,6 ab
41,4 ab
28,6 a
35,6 ab
44,9 b
52,98 a
66,83 b
81,69 c
79,86 c
90,99 d
71,33 b
TAB LE 7. TH E IN FLU EN C E OF B IOSTIMU LAN TS ON TH E GR OWTH OF H OSTA `MIN U TEMAN `
PLAN TS OVER WIN TER IN G OU TSID E
Tabela 7. Wp³yw bi ostymulatorów wzrost roœli n H osta `Mi nuteman` zi muj¹cych na zewn¹trz
TREATPLANT
LEAF
LENGTH WIDTH OF
LEAF
ROOT
ROOT
ROOT
MENT
HEIGHT NUMBER OF LEAF
LEAF
FRESH NUMBER LENGTH FRESH
Kombinacja WysokoϾ
Liczba
BLADE
BLADE
WEIGHT
Liczba
D³ugoœæ WEIGHT
roœlin
liœci
D³ugoœæ
SzerokoϾ
Œwie¿a
korzeni
korzeni
Œwie¿a
[cm]
blaszki
blaszki
masa liœci
[cm]
masa
liœciowej
liœciowej
[g]
korzeni
[cm]
[cm]
[g]
C*
28.88 bc
10.2 b
15.16 c
A/1
30 c
8a
14.25 b
A/2
26 ab
8.6 ab
14.08 b
A/S
28.7 bc
9 ab
14.18 b
S/1
26.5 b
8a
13.19 a
S/2
23.6 a
8.4 a
12 . 5 2 a
EXPLANATIONS AND SOURC E: SEE: TA.B. 1.
Objaœni eni a i Ÿród³o: jak w tab. 1.
10.79 c
10.08 bc
10.15 bc
9.06 a
9.84 b
8.48 a
63.35 e
45.56 c
54.35 d
73.13 f
35.23 a
36.20 b
40.4 b
31.4 a
26.8 a
30.2 a
31 a
32 a
33.5 ab
32.2 ab
32.8 ab
27.5 a
35.7 b
37.9 b
52.77 d
45.41 b
57.52 e
71.71 f
47.89 c
41.54 a
37
TAB LE 8. TH E IN FLU EN C E OF B IOSTIMU LAN TS ON TH E GR OWTH OF BER GEN I A C OR D I FOLI A
`R OTB LU M` PLAN TS OVER WIN TER IN G IN TH E C OLD GR EEN H OU SE
Tabela 8. Wp³yw bi ostymulatorów na wzrost roœli n Bergeni a cordi fol i a `Rotblum` zi muj¹cych w ni eogrzewanej
szklarni
TREATPLANT
LEAF
LENGTH WIDTH OF
LEAF
ROOT
ROOT
ROOT
MENT
HEIGHT NUMBER OF LEAF
LEAF
FRESH NUMBER LENGTH FRESH
Kombinacja WysokoϾ
Liczba
BLADE
BLADE
WEIGHT
Liczba
D³ugoœæ WEIGHT
roœlin
liœci
D³ugoœæ
SzerokoϾ
Œwie¿a
korzeni
korzeni
Œwie¿a
[cm]
blaszki
blaszki
masa liœci
[cm]
masa
liœciowej
liœciowej
[g]
korzeni
[cm]
[cm]
[g]
C*
15.8 a**
5.2 a
8.33 a
A/1
17.8 a
5.2 a
9.61 a
A/2
15.24 a
5.4 a
8.49 a
A/S
17.9 a
6.0 a
9.0 a
S/1
16.7 a
5.0 a
9.15 a
S/2
1 7.6 a
6.2 a
9.23 a
EXPLANATIONS AND SOURC E: SEE: TA.B. 1.
Objaœni eni a i Ÿród³o: jak w tab. 1.
6.87 a
7.2 a
6.75 a
6.8 a
7.05 a
6.77 a
11.02 b
12.59 c
12.60 c
10.16 b
11.05 b
7.74 a
10.6 ab
8 ab
8.4 ab
13.0 b
7.2 a
9.4 ab
18 a
19.3 a
22.2 a
20.2 a
27.4 a
20.7 a
6.65 a
7.84 ab
8.51 b
7.78 ab
11.52 c
14.99 d
TAB LE 9. TH E IN FLU EN C E OF B IOSTIMU LAN TS ON TH E GR OWTH OF BER GEN I A C OR D I FOLI A
`R OTB LU M` PLAN TS OVER WIN TER IN G OU TSID E
Tabela 9. Wp³yw bi ostymulatorów na wzrost roœli n Bergeni a cordi fol i a `Rotblum` zi muj¹cych na zewn¹trz
TREATPLANT
LEAF
LENGTH WIDTH OF
LEAF
ROOT
ROOT
ROOT
MENT
HEIGHT NUMBER OF LEAF
LEAF
FRESH NUMBER LENGTH FRESH
Kombinacja WysokoϾ
Liczba
BLADE
BLADE
WEIGHT
Liczba
D³ugoœæ WEIGHT
roœlin
liœci
D³ugoœæ
SzerokoϾ
Œwie¿a
korzeni
korzeni
Œwie¿a
[cm]
blaszki
blaszki
masa liœci
[cm]
masa
liœciowej
liœciowej
[g]
korzeni
[cm]
[cm]
[g]
C*
16.96 a
4.4 ab
8.26 a
A/1
15.84 a
5 abc
8.547 ab
A/2
18.3 a
7.2 c
10.413 c
A/S
18 a
5 abc
9.887 bc
S/1
16.04 a
6 bc
8.467 ab
S/2
16.54 a
3.6 a
8.807 ab
EXPLANATIONS AND SOURC E: SEE: TA.B. 1.
Objaœni eni a i Ÿród³o: jak w tab. 1.
6.73 ab
7.51 abc
8.75 c
7.98 bc
6.25 a
6.29 a
11.62 b
14.17 c
24.61 e
17.14 d
11.61 b
8.65 a
6.6 a
8.2 a
12 a
9a
5.4 a
10 a
22.44 a
16.3 a
15.6 a
16.7 a
19.4 a
15 a
7.53 a
15.09 c
27.53 d
7.61 a
11.61 b
15.33 c
(Tab. 6). Biostimulants influenced leaf growth in Bergenia cordifolia overwintering
outside (Tab. 9). The highest number of leaves with the biggest length and width was
produced by plants sprayed 4 times with Asahi SL. These leaves had also the highest
fresh weight. Both Asahi and Siapton applied separately resulted in an increased root
fresh weight although they did not influenced root number nor length.
Application of Asahi SL increased content of chlorophyll a+b in Hosta `Sum and
Substance` (Tab. 10). Siapton significantly increased protein content in the leaves of both
Hosta cultivars (sprayed 4 or 8 times) and in the leaves of Bergenia cordifolia (treated
8 times). Only in Bergenia cordifolia 4-time application of Siapton resulted in decreased
protein content (Tab. 11).
38
TAB LE 10. TH E IN FLU EN C E OF B IOSTIMU LAN TS ON TH E
C H LOR OPH YLL A AN D B C ON TEN T IN TH E LEAVES OF
H OSTA `SU M AN D SU B STAN C E` AN D `MIN U TEMAN ` AN D
BER GEN I A C OR D I FOLI A `R OTB LU M` [mg.g-1 D W]
Tabela 7. Wp³yw bi ostymulatorów na zawartoœæ chlorofi lu a + b
w li œci ach H osta 'Sum and Substance' i 'Mi nuteman' oraz
Bergeni a cordi fol i a 'Rotblum' [mg.g-1 s.m.]
TR EATMEN T
H OSTA
H OSTA
BER GEN I A
Kombi nacja
`SU M AN D
`MIN U TEMAN ` C OR D I FOLI A
SU B STAN C E`
`R OTB LU M`
DISCUSSION
Growing demand for the ornamental perennials creates the
need for efficient production of
high quality plants. As application
of chemical substances is stronC
8,156 b
27,323 d
12,555 c
gly restricted in the nursery proA/1
11,104 c
26,597 cd
16,459 d
duction due to the requirements
A/2
10,803 c
25,068 c
13,541 c
A/S
6,526 a
25,382 c
10,413 b
of ecological production, plant
S/1
8,752 b
22,372 b
13,251 c
S/2
7,082 a
19,347 a
8,494 a
growth may be improved by meEX PLANATIONS: SEE: TAB.1
ans of safe for the environment
SOURC E: SEE TAB1.
*, ** – jak w tab.1.
natural stimulants.
ród³o: jak w tab. 1.
Asahi SL (Atonik) is one of
the biostimulants most widely
TAB LE 11. TH E IN FLU EN C E OF B IOSTIMU LAN TS ON TH E
SOLU B LE PR OTEIN C ON TEN T IN TH E LEAVES OF
used in horticulture. It contains
H OSTA `SU M A N D SU BSTA N C E` AN D `MIN U TEMAN `,
AN D BER GEN I A C OR D I FOLI A `R OTBLU M '` [mg.g D W]
phenolic compounds, naturally
Tabela 8. Wp³yw bi ostymulatorów na zawartoœæ bi a³ek
produced by plants and active in
rozpuszczalnych w li œci ach Hosta 'Sum and Substance' i
'M i nutem an' oraz Bergeni a cordi foli a 'R otbl um ' (mg . g-1 s.m.)
many biochemical and physioloTR EATMEN T
H OSTA
H OSTA
BER GEN I A
gical processes. Active compoKombi nacja
`SU M AN D
`MIN U TEMAN ` C OR D I FOLI A
SU B STAN C E`
`R OTB LU M`
nents of Asahi water solution inC
95,128 ab
111,76 a
227,26 b
clude: sodium ortho-nitrophenolaA/1
118,298 b
88,271 a
162,863 a
A/2
61,838 a
95,145 a
173,28 a
te (0,2%), sodium para-nitropheA/S
119,81 b
151,915 b
247,158 b
nolate (0,3%), sodium 5-nitroguS/1
213,215 c
205,695 c
337,242 c
S/2
229,432 c
148,68 b
176,878 a
aiacolate (0,1%) – substrates of
EX PLANATIONS: See: Tab.1
enzymatic red-ox systems [StutSOURC E: SEE TAB1.
*, ** – jak w tab.1.
te, Clark 1990]. Atonik stimularód³o: jak w tab. 1.
ted plant growth in Chrysanthemum parthenium [Gruszczyk, Berbeæ 2004] and thyme [Berbeæ et. al. 2003]. In Rosa
Flamingo Asahi stimulated shoot production and resulted in high quality of plants [Adamiak, Hetman 2006]. In Rosa multiflora it stimulated growth of shoots and roots [Hetman, Adamiak 2003]. Similar results were obtained in the described experiment for Hosta sp. where sprays with Asahi resulted in the increased leaf number and size, as well as
in increased root number.
Siapton is a biostimulant containing aminoacids and short peptide chains (organic
nitrogen >9%). It improves plant growth, protects them against environmental stresses,
improves activity of enzymatic systems, controls activity of growth regulators, improves
absorption and transport of microelements [www.isagro.com]. Siapton increased size
and number of leaves young Hosta sp. plants. Stimulatory effect of Siapton on leaf and
root growth was observed in Bergenia cordifolia. It stimulated also vegetative growth
of strawberries, tomato, and pepper [www.isagro.com], shoot production in cuttings of
Eleagnus angustifolia L. and Hippophaë rhamnoides L. [Maini 1990], as well as
proliferation of new roots in seedlings of tomato and pepper [www.isagro.com] and cuttings of Eleagnus angustifolia and Hippophaë rhamnoides [Maini 1990].
-1
39
Asahi resulted in increased content of chlorophyll a + b in Hosta `Sum and Substance` and Bergenia cordifolia `Rotblum` (Table 10). Similarly, increased chlorophyll and
protein content after Asahi treatment was noted in tomato and cotton plants [Devi 2003].
No stimulatory effect of Asahi on protein production was observed in this study, opposite
to its effects observed in tomato and cotton. Siapton increased soluble protein content in
the leaves of all species studied (Table 11). Stimulation of chlorophyll production is one of
the properties of Siapton [www.isagro.com], confirmed by the experiments with grape
[RASP 1986]. This effect was not observed in Hosta nor Bergenia plants studied in the
experiment.
CONCLUSIONS
Biostimulants Asahi and Siapton can enhance growth and improve quality of Hosta
sp. and Bergenia cordifolia plants. After some further tests, they may be recommended
for use in nursery plant production.
REFERENCES
Adamiak J., Hetman J. 2006: Wp³yw Asahi na jakoœæ jednorocznych krzewów ró¿ odm. Flamingo. Zesz.
Prob.Post. Nauk Rol. z.510: 19-24.
Berbeæ S., Andryszczak A., £usiak J., Sapko A. 2003: Wp³yw dolistnego stosowania Atoniku i Ekolistu
na plony i jakoϾ surowca tymianku. Acta Agrophysica 85: 305-311.
Inskeep W.P., Bloom P.R. 1985: Extinction coefficients of chlorophyll a and b in n,n-dimethylformamide
and 80% acetone. Plant Physiol., 77(2): 483-485.
Bradford M.M. 1976: A rapid and sensitive method for quantitation of microgram quantities of protein
utilizing the principle of protein-dye-binding. Annal. Biochem., 72: 248-54.
Cholewiñski A. 1998: Wstêpna ocena wybranych stymulatorów wzrostu na plony dwóch odmian truskawek w uprawie polowej. Materia³y z 37 Ogólnopolskiej Naukowej Konferencji Sadowniczej. Skierniewice, 57-80.
Devi D. D. 2003: Bioefficacy test of Atonik on cotton and tomato, project report-unpublished data.
Gruszczyk M., Berbeæ S. 2004: Porównanie wp³ywu wybranych preparatów stosowanych dolistnie na
plony i jakoœæ surowca z³ocienia maruny (Chrysanthemum parthenium L.). Annales UMCS, Sectio E,
vol.59, nr.2: 755-759.
Hetman J., Adamiak J. 2003: Wp³yw Asahi SL na jakoœæ podk³adki ró¿y wielokwiatowej (Rosa multiflora
thunb.). Zesz. Prob.Post. Nauk Rol., z. 491: 61-67.
Maini P. 1990: Rooting improvement for cuttings in tree nurseries with the biostimulant Siapton. Abstracts
XXIII Int. Horticultural Congress, Firenze, Sept.
Mikos-bielak M., Kukie³ka W. 2000: Atonik – jeden z czynników modyfikuj¹cych zawartoœæ naturalnych antyoksydantów w owocach jagodowych. Rocz. AR Poznañ 323, Ogrodnictwo, 31 (2): 401-402.
Moran R., Porath D. 1980: Chlorophyll determination in intact tissues using n,n-dimethylformamide. Plant
Physiol., 65:478-479.
Rasp H. 1986: Control of grape chlorosis through nutrient application on leaves. [In:] Foliar fertilization (ed.
Alexander A.): 242-254.
Saniewska A. 2000: Wp³yw preparatu Atonik na hamowanie wzrostu i rozwoju niektórych gatunków
grzybów chorobotwórczych dla roœlin ozdobnych. Zesz. Naukowe ISIK, 7: 145-153.
Stutte C.A., Clark T.M. 1990: Radiolabelled studies of atonic in cotton HPLC. University Arkansas.
Department of Argonomy, 171-174.
www.isagro.com
40
EFFECT OF ASAHI SL ON THE INITIAL DEVELOPMENT
OF WILLOW CUTTINGS AT VARIED SOIL MOISTURE
Gra¿yna Harasimowicz-Hermann, Krzysztof Czy¿
University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland
INTRODUCTION
The reproductive material of shrubby willow are cuttings formed from parts of lignified shoots. Willow planted in spring is characterized by remarkably long rooting. At the
early stage after planting, the initiation and development of shoots and leaves proceed
faster than those of roots. A plant at this stage might have disturbed water relations, as
transpiration from leaves progresses and water uptake from soil with few and weekly
formed roots is insignificant. Making a success in setting up a willow plantation depends
on a number of cuttings established and their initial development, which is supported by a
faster development of roots in comparison with aboveground parts.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of selected stimulants for root
initiation and development of willow cuttings at different soil moisture. The research
hypothesis assumed that both a willow clone and moisture of the substrate might differentiate the effectiveness of the preparations used to stimulate rooting of cuttings.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The study was carried out on the basis of a three-factorial pot experiment with three
replications. The significance of differences between the treatment means was estimated using the Tukey test. The experimental factors were as follows:
1. Stimulants of rooting and growth of plants: (a) Asahi SL (bios), (b) Korzonek D DS.
(aux), (c) 0 – without any stimulants (0),
2. Willow clones: (I) Salix alba (clone – 1100) and II) Salix viminalis (clone – 1057),
3. Soil moisture: (1) insufficient 75-25% FC (nw) and (2) optimal 75-60% FC (ww).
First group of cuttings (a) was treated with 0.2% solution of Asahi SL for two hours
prior to planting. Biostimulant Asahi SL does not contain phytohormones and its working
mechanism involves stimulating the synthesis of natural hormones. The active substances
of Asahi SL are sodium ortho-nitrophenolan, sodium para-nitrophenolan, and sodium 5nitroguaiacolan. The second group of cuttings (b) was covered at the whole length with the
rooting powder Korzonek D DS. Korzonek D DS is used for rooting woody plants and it
stimulates root development at the first stages in their growth. The active substance of this
root stimulant is an auxin – 0.4% indolilobutyric acid. Additionally, the preparation contains
1% the fungicide Kaptan. The third group of plants (c) was planted without any stimulants.
41
Shrubby willow (I) Salix alba (clone – 1100) and (II) Salix viminalis (clone – 1057)
have similar soil requirements. The soil with which pots were filled (a volume of 25 dm3)
was taken from the topsoil of a field under cultivation situated on a lessive soil in quality
class IV b.
Directly after harvest willow shoots were cut into cuttings of 25 cm in length and
17-18 mm in diameter at the base. The process of cutting rooting started on April 20 and
continued for 12 weeks. At sites 1 and 2, soil moisture was maintained at the equal level
of 75% field water capacity (FWC) for 3 weeks after planting, and it varied for the next
9 weeks. At site 1, conditions of deficient moisture was created by not watering the
pots. The loss of water from soil increased systematically and at the end of research
period the soil moisture was 25% FWC. At site 2, an optimum moisture at a level of 60%
FWC was maintained. Soil moisture was determined with the gravimetric method according to PN-ISO 11465:1999.
After 12 weeks of plant vegetation cutting dry mass was estimated (without roots
and aboveground parts) and assumed as 100%. The mass of developed roots and aboveground parts was determined separately and their share (%) in cutting mass was calculated.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Stimulants used for willow rooting affected the root mass generated by cuttings, but
the differences were not statistically significant. However, discussing the effect of biostimulants was considered justified for the reason that under dry conditions cuttings without
stimulants did not generate any roots, which would result in crop losses.
Numerous studies of the effect of biostimulant Asahi SL on cultivated plants were
carried out at home and abroad [Guo, Oosterhuis 1995, Koupril 1996, Basak 1998, Cholewiñski 1998, Mikos-Bielak , Kukie³ka 2000]. The results indicated that Asahi SL improves yielding and has a positive effect on cultivated plant health. Plants treated with the
bio-stimulant were characterized by an increased resistance to stress factors, including
water stress. However, there are no data in the literature concerning the effect of this
stimulant on the initiation of willow cutting roots. During vegetative propagation, particularly at the early stage of growth, willow is exposed to stress owing to moisture excess or
deficiency. Key problems at this stage of cultivation are root growth stimulation and
balancing of this process with the aboveground plant part formation. Obtaining balance in
the development of cutting aboveground and underground parts might be helpful for its
adaptation to stress conditions. Willow planted in spring is characterized by a relatively
long rooting. At the early stage after planting the initiation and development of shoots and
leaves proceeds faster than roots. The plant at this stage might have disturbed water
economy, as transpiration from leaves grows, and uptake from soil with few and weekly
developed roots is small. Success in setting up a willow plantation depends on a number
of established cuttings and their initial growth, and this is supported by a faster root
development.
In the present studies, during twelve weeks (April-July 2006) of plant vegetation it
was found that under conditions of moisture deficiency cuttings of a clone Salix alba
42
>@
6DOL[DOED
ELRVQZ
LEGEND:
bios-nw
aux-nw
0-nw
bios-ww
aux-ww
0-ww
œr. nw
œr. ww
DX[QZ
QZ
ELRVZZ
DX[ZZ
ZZ
UQZ
UZZ
1,5
– CUTTING WITH AUXINE AND LOW SOIL MOISTURE
– CUTTING WITHOUT STIMULATING AND LOW SOIL MOISTURE
– CUTTING WITH GROWTH STIMULATOR ASAHI AND LOW SOIL MOISTURE
– CUTTING WITH AUXINE AND OPTIMAL SOIL MOISTURE
– CUTTING WITHOUT STIMULATING AND OPTIMAL SOIL MOISTURE
– CUTTING WITH GROWTH STIMULATOR ASAHI AND OPTIMAL SOIL MOISTURE
– MEAN FOR TREATMENT WITH LOW SOIL MOISTURE
– MEAN FOR TREATMENT OPTIMAL SOIL MOISTURE
Legenda:
bios-nw –
aux-nw –
0-nw
–
bios-ww –
aux-ww –
0-ww
–
œr. nw
–
œr. ww –
sadzonki z dodatkiem biostymulatora Asahi SL i wilgotnoϾ gleby niedostateczna
sadzonki z dodatkiem stymulatora Korzonek D DS i wilgotnoϾ gleby niedostateczna
sadzonki bez stymulatorów i wilgotnoœæ gleby niedostateczna
sadzonki z dodatkiem biostymulatora Asahi SL i wilgotnoϾ gleby optymalna
sadzonki z dodatkiem stymulatora Korzonek D DS i wilgotnoϾ gleby optymalna
sadzonki bez stymulatorów i wilgotnoœæ gleby optymalna
œrednia dla obiektów z niedostateczn¹ wilgotnoœci¹ gleby
œrednia dla obiektów z optymaln¹ wilgotnoœci¹ gleby
FIGURE 1. FIGURE 1. PERCENTAGE BY WEIGHT OF NEW ROOT RELATIVE TO CUTTING WEIGHT IN
SALIX ALBA CLONE (LSD0.05 FOR SOIL MOISTURE = 1.236)
SOURCE: OWN STUDY.
Rysunek 1. Udzia³ masy korzeni [%] w stosunku do masy sadzonki wierzby klonu Salix alba (NIR0,05 dla
wilgotnoœci gleby = 1,236)
ród³o: badania w³asne.
6DOL[YLPLQDOLV
>@
ELRVQZ
DX[QZ
QZ
ELRVZZ
DX[ZZ
ZZ
UQZ
UZZ
1,5
FIGURE 2. PERCENTAGE BY WEIGHT OF NEW ROOT RELATIVE TO CUTTING WEIGHT IN SALIX
VIMINALIS CLONE (LSD0.05 FOR SOIL MOISTURE = 1.236)
LEGEND: SEE FIG. 1.
SOURCE: OWN STUDY.
Rysunek 2. Udzia³ masy korzeni (%) w stosunku do masy sadzonki klonu Salix viminalis (NIR0,05 dla
wilgotnoœci gleby = 1,236)
Legenda: jak na rys. 1
ród³o: badania w³asne.
43
>@
6DOL[DOED
ELRVQZ
DX[QZ
QZ
ELRVZZ
DX[ZZ
ZZ
UQZ
UZZ
1,5
FIGURE 3. PERCENTAGE BY WEIGHT OF NEW SHOOT RELATIVE TO CUTTING WEIGHT IN SALIX
ALBA CLONE (LSD0.05 FOR SOIL MOISTURE = 14.560)
LEGEND: SEE FIG. 1
SOURCE: OWN STUDY.
Rysunek 3. Udzia³ [%] masy wykszta³conych pêdów nadziemnych w stosunku do masy sadzonki klonu
Salix alba (NIR0,05 dla wilgotnoœci gleby = 14,560)
Legenda: jak na rys. 1.
ród³o: badania w³asne.
6DOL[YLPLQDOLV
>@
ELRVQZ
DX[QZ
QZ
ELRVZZ
DX[ZZ
ZZ
UQZ
UZZ
1,5
FIGURE 4. PERCENTAGE BY WEIGHT OF NEW ROOT RELATIVE TO CUTTING WEIGHT IN SALIX
VIMINALIS CLONE (LSD0.05 FOR SOIL MOISTURE = 14.560)
LEGEND: SEE FIG. 1.
SOURCE: OWN STUDY.
Rysunek 4. Udzia³ [%] masy wykszta³conych pêdów nadziemnych w stosunku do masy sadzonki klonu
Salix viminalis (NIR0,05 dla wilgotnoœci gleby = 14,560)
Legenda: jak na rys. 1.
ród³o: badania w³asne.
after applying Asahi SL developed root mass which accounted for 1.5% in relation to
the mass of the whole cutting (cutting without roots and aboveground parts – 100%) (Fig.
1) and the mass of aboveground parts – 9.6% (Fig. 3), Owing to the action of the stimulant Korzonek D DS root mass accounted for 0.9% and aboveground parts 5.4%.
The cuttings of this clone, rooted in the soil with the optimal moisture after applying
Asahi SL, also were characterized by the biggest mass of roots – 7.1% (Fig. 1) and
aboveground parts – 66.7% (Fig. 3) in relation to cutting mass. As a result of applying the
preparation Korzonek D DS for willow rooting under conditions of the optimal soil moisture, the plants had a higher mass of developed roots (Fig. 1) in relation to cutting mass
than at the site where stimulants were not applied, and the masses of aboveground parts
were at a similar level (Fig. 3). However, a difference between the root stimulants applied was not confirmed statistically. Cuttings of clone Salix alba under conditions of a
44
higher moisture developed a significantly higher mass of roots and aboveground parts
than under conditions of lower soil moisture.
Cuttings of the clone of Salix viminalis rooted under conditions of water deficit
(Fig. 2 and 4) showed a similar reaction to applying Asahi SL to Salix alba. Willow
which rooting was stimulated with Asahi SL had a high root mass: it amounted to 1.6%
cutting mass, while the mass of aboveground parts was 6.1% cutting mass. At the site
where the stimulants were not used plants were the weakest, they had no roots (0 %),
and aboveground parts amounted to 2.4% cutting mass. Rooting of willow Salix viminalis, at the optimal soil moisture, did not require using stimulants, as plants not subjected to their action had a bigger mass of both roots and aboveground parts (8.7% of root
mass and 107.4% of shoot mass in relation to cutting mass) than cuttings subjected to
the action of stimulants. The weakest growth and thus the mass of roots and aboveground parts were observed in plants treated with Korzonek D DS (42% root mass and
39.5% mass of aboveground parts in relation to cutting mass). The root stimulants
applied did not result in significant differences in root mass increment of Salix viminalis. Under conditions of soil moisture deficiency the proportion of the mass of roots to
that of aboveground parts was less than at the optimal soil moisture (Fig.1-4). Under
dry conditions, root weight increment in relation to aboveground parts was higher. Considerable reduction of shoot mass development in relation to root mass was visible in
Salix viminalis development (Fig. 2 and 4). Wróbel and Mazurkiewicz-Zapa³owicz
[2004] studied the effect of Atonik on selected biometric and physiological features of
Salix viminalis plants. They reported that a mixture of sodium ortho-nitrophenolan,
sodium para-nitrophenolan and sodium 5-nitroguaiacolan (Atonik, Asahi SL) had an
effect on the synthesis of indolilo-3-acetic acid (IAA) belonging to auxins, although it is
a non-auxin preparation. This can explain a positive effect of Asahi SL on the initiation
and formation of adventitious roots in the present studies.
The results of applying the auxin Korzonek D DS coincide with those observed by
Hoag and Short [1992], Edson [1995] and Darris [2002], who reported that a direct
action of concentrated auxin doses resulted in limitations of root formation and cutting
damage. Using auxins in a lower concentration (0.4% IBA) had a positive effect on plant
rooting. Differences in reacting of particular clones to substances contained in stimulants
and different soil moisture were noted in previous studies. According to Gill [1975], Krasny et al. [1988], Kunze [1994], Ewing [1996], Pezeshki et al. [1998], Reed [2003], each
clone possesses its own specific adaptation properties under conditions of an increased
or low moisture of the soil environment. Chmelar [1974] claims in his studies that the
growth of roots and aboveground parts at the early stage of plant development is not
proportional and depends on the clone.
In the present study, differences in soil moisture during 12 weeks of rooting of willow
cuttings significantly changed both the mass of developed roots and that of aboveground
parts. Irrespective of stimulants applied, the clones of Salix alba and Salix viminalis
generated a significantly bigger mass of roots and aboveground parts under conditions of
the optimal soil moisture (75-60%) than at low moisture (75-25%). The research conducted confirmed the known feature of willow vegetative propagation, that is a lush growth
of aboveground parts and a very slow increase in root mass. The initial growth of cuttings
45
is not balanced: at a good soil moisture the biomass of vegetative shoots was almost
tenfold higher than that of underground organs, and at soil water deficiency this predominance of the aboveground mass was slightly less (3.5 to 8-fold). Hansen and Pipps
[1983], Rein [1991], Standard and Guenther [1999] and Darris [2002] prove in their
studies that soil moisture significantly affects the development of plant roots. The results obtained in the present study support the opinion of Kasperska [1995] and Lewak
[1995] that water deficiency in the soil environment leads to tissue dehydration and
plant hormonal balance disturbance, which consists in a decrease in share of growth
stimulants and a simultaneous increase in hormones inhibiting cell growth. Thus the
results of using Asahi SL observed in the present study make us think that the biostimulant restores or improves hormonal balance in plants and thus stimulates rooting of cuttings, particularly in dry conditions.
CONCLUSIONS
1. Usefulness of Asahi SL and Korzonek D DS for rooting of hardwood willow cuttings
was not identical; it depended on clone and soil moisture at the beginning of forming
roots and aboveground parts. Under conditions of good moisture applying root stimulants in cultivation of Salix viminalis was unnecessary.
2. Willow cuttings of the clones tested treated with Asahi SL prior to planting developed
regularly a higher mass of roots and aboveground parts than the cuttings on which the
standard root stimulant Korzonek D DS was applied.
3. Asahi SL can be applied for Salix viminalis rooting, as it favours generating growth
root mass but does not affect significantly the abundance of aboveground parts. Its
effect is clearly visible, particularly under conditions of soil moisture deficiency.
4. Korzonek D DS limited the growth of roots and aboveground parts of Salix viminalis under conditions of the optimal soil moisture.
5. Under conditions of soil water deficiency, willow Salix alba and Salix viminalis,
irrespective of the root stimulant applied, generated a significantly less mass of roots
and aboveground parts than at the optimal moisture level.
6. Under condition of water deficiency, cuttings of Salix alba – clone 1100 developed a
more abundant root system than clone 1057 of Salix viminalis and while at the
optimal moisture the differences in root mass between these clones were small.
REFERENCE
Basak A. 1998: Bioregulators – current state and prospects. Mat. 37 Ogól. Konf. Nauk. Sadownictwa,
Skierniewice: 40-46.
Chmelar J. 1974. Propagation of willows by cuttings. New Zeal J Forest Sci., v. 4 (2): 185-190.
Cholewiñski A. 1998: Preliminary assessment of the effect of selected growth stimulants on the yield of two
strawberry cultivars in ground cultivation. Mat. 37 Ogól. Konf. Nauk. Sadownictwa, Skierniewice: 5780.
Darris D. 2002. Ability of Pacific Northwest Native Shrubs to Root from Hardwood Cuttings (with
Summary of Propagation Methods for 22 Species). Plant Materials Program Technical Note, No. 30.
USDA NRCS, Portland, OR.: 20.
Edson J.L., Leege-Brusven A.D., Wenny D.L. 1995. Improved vegetative propagation of scouler willow.
Tree Planter’s Notes, v. 46 (2): 58-63.
46
Ewing K. 1996. Tolerance of four wetland plant species to flooding and sediment deposition. Environ Exp.,
Bot.. v. 36 (2): 131-145.
Gill C.J. 1975. The ecological significance of adventitious rooting as a response to flooding in woody species
with special reference to Alnus glutinosa. Flora, v. 164: 85-98.
Guo C., Oosterhuis D.M. 1995. Atonik: a new plant growth regulator to enhance yield in cotton. Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conference, San Antonio, TX. 4-7 Jan. 1995. Natl. Cotton Coun. Am., Memphis, TN: 1086-1088.
Hansen E.A., Phipps H.M. 1983. Effect of soil moisture tension and replant treatment on early growth of
hybrid Populus hardwood cuttings. Canadian J. Forest Res., v. 13: 458-464.
Hoag J.C., Short H. 1992. Use of Willow and Cottonwood Cuttings for Vegetating Shorelines and Riparian
Areas. Riparian/Wetland Project Information Series No. 3. USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service, Aberdeen Plant Materials Center, Aberdeen, ID: 15
Kasperska A. 1995: Share of phytohormones in plant response to stress factors of the environment.
Kosmos, 44 (3-4): 623-637.
Koupril S. 1996. Effect of growth regulator Atonik on some apple cultivars – effect on the shoots growth.
Zahradnictwo. Hort. Sci., 23, 4: 121-127.
Krasny M.E., Zasada J.C., Vogt K.A. 1988. Adventitious rooting of four Salicaceae species in response to
a flooding event. Canadian J. Bot., v. 66: 2597-2598.
Kunze L.M. 1994. Preliminary Classification of Native Freshwater Wetland Vegetation in Western Washington. Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Resource Protection. Natural Heritage Program, Olympia, Washington: 120.
Lewak S. 1995: Phytohormones: trends in research over the last decade. Kosmos, 44 (3-4): 601-622.
Mikos-Bielak M., Kukie³ka W. 2000: Atonik, one of the factors modifying the content of natural antioxidants in small fruits. Rocz. AR w Poznaniu, Ogrodnictwo, 31: 401-403.
Pezeshki S.R., Anderson P.H., Shields Jr.F.D. 1998. Effects of soil moisture regimes on growth and
survival of black willow (Salix nigra) posts (cuttings). Wetlands., v. 18 (3): 460-470.
Reed P.B. 2003. National List of Plant Species That Occur in Wetlands: 1988 National Summary. For U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, and U.S. Soil Conservation Service. http://wetlands.fws.gov/ plants.htm
Rein W.H., Wright R.D., Seiler J.R. 1991. Propagation medium moisture level influences adventitious
rooting of woody stem cuttings. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci., v. 116: 632-636.
Stannard M., Guenther H. 1999. Rooting Characteristics of Black Cottonwood and Pacific Willow. Technical Notes Plant Materials No. 39. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Pullman Plant
Materials Center, Pullman, WA. www.wsu.edu pmcnrcs/technotes/plant_materials/tntpm 39.htm.
Wróbel J., Mazurkiewicz-Zapa³owicz K. 2004: Effect of the growth regulator Atonik on the selected
biometric and physiological features of Salix viminalis L. Cultivated on sandy dredged spoils enriched
with sewage sludge. Folia Univ. Agric. Steti., Agricultura, 234 (93): 403-408.
47
THE EFFECT OF ATONIC PLANT GROWTH STIMULATOR
ON PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF THE BASKET
WILLOW (SALIX VIMINALIS L.) CULTIVATED IN
ANTHROPOGENIC SOIL
Jacek Wróbel, Anna WoŸniak
Agricultural University, Szczecin, Poland
INTRODUCTION
Growth regulators, depending on their origin, are responsible for modification of plant
growth and development processes within a specific range. These chemical compounds,
moving polarly or non-polarly across various plant tissues, have a direct effect on them,
activating in them different metabolic processes [Jankiewicz 1997]. At present, different
biologically active substances are used to obtain a desired result. Among them are exogenous plant hormones and biostimulators [Corpes, Mandel 2000, Bertell, Eliasson 1992].
Plant response to these compounds is very changeable as it depends not only on the
properties of growth regulator itself but also on the stage of plant developmental and its
condition as well as on biotope conditions [Klasa et al. 1996ab].
Under the effect of abiotic stress agents on plants, application of exogenous growth
regulators is of vital importance in mitigating stress response, as well as after stress
termination [Wróbel 2002, Starck 1999, Kacperska 1995]. At present, more and more
attention is paid to the use of bioregulators of different origin in order to increase the
crop-productive potential of plants that have been introduced into anthropogenically modified environment. Such plants are first of all responsible for restoration of sustainable
ecosystem, with plant growth regulators being helpful in it.
The plant with a broad ecological tolerance is basket willow, called also the energy
willow (Salix viminalis L.) [Szczukowski, Tworkowski 1999, Philip 1995]. Due to its
unique performance traits, such as quick growth and large biomass gain, basket willow is
more and more frequently used in environmental protection. It is being introduced into
degraded lands with the aim of their reclamation. In order to increase plant acclimatisation abilities to unfavourable environmental conditions, exogenous growth regulators or
biostimulators are also used.
Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the effect of non-auxin plant growth regulator „Atonic” on the physiological activity of Salix viminalis, BJOR clone, growing on
an anthropogenic soil bed additionally enriched with sewage sludge.
48
METHODS
Field research and laboratory tests on the basket willow Salix viminalis BJOR clone
were were carried out in the 3rd and the 4th years of vegetation (2005-2006) on a sandy silt
dumping ground situated on the „Ostrów Grabowski” Peninsula in Szczecin. The study area
was 135 m2. Experimental soil bed was the spoil of water lane dredging of the Odra River
[Marska et al. 1998]. It was characterised by scanty quantities of organic matter and mineral compounds as well as bad water and air conditions. The silt was classified into a granulometric group of loose sand [Niedzwiecki 1994] (Tab. 1). The experiment was set in twofactor randomised complete block design, with two types of soil bed, i.e. pure silt and
sewage sludge-supplemented silt, being the first factor, and three Atonic solutions, at
concentrations of 0 (control), 0.1 and 0.2%, being the second one.
TAB LE 1. TEXTU R E AN D C H EMIC AL PR OPER TIES OF SAN D Y SILT ( PTG – 2005)
Tabela 1. Sk³ad granulometryczny oraz w³aœci woœci i sk³ad chemi czny refulatu pi aszczystego (PTG – 2005)
TEXTU R E
pH
TOTAL MAC R OELEMEN TS
TOTAL
TOTAL TR AC E
GR OU P
KCL
Makroelementy ogó³em
MIC R OELEMEN TS
ELEMEN TS
Grupa
[g·kg-1s.m.]
Mi kroelementy ogó³em
Pi erwi astki œladowe
granulometryczna
[mg·kg-1s.m.]
ogó³em [mg·kg-1s.m.]
N
K
Mg C a
P
Fe
Zn
Cu
Mn
Cd
Ni
Pb
SAND Y SILT
7,3
Pi asek luŸny [pl]
SOURC E: OWN STUD Y.
ród³o: badani a w³asne.
0,34 0,22 0,66 5,12 0,37 207,4 16,97 0,88 93,80
0,35
1,23
0,89
In the first year of experiment the plots selected according to experiment variants
were enriched once with a 15 cm thick layer of sewage sludge from the Ostrów Grabowski Biological Sewage Treatment Plant. The sewage sludge was characterised by large
moisture and large organic matter content, while its reaction approximated the neutral
one. Moreover, it was quite abundant in nutrients and also contained a small amount of
heavy metals (Tab. 2). In the study, a non-auxin plant growth stimulator known under the
trade name Atonic was used, containing sodium 5-nitroguajakolan and ortho- and paranitrophenolans as main components. In each examination year, the plant growth regulator
was applied twice, after 15-20 days of atmospheric draught, in the form of spraying in
doses of 0.5 and 1.0 dm3 Atonic in 500 dm3 H2O·ha-1.
The following parameters were measured three times during the growth period, with
6 replications – the content of chlorophyll a + b and carotenoids as well as the relative
water content (RWC) in leaves, whereas those of macro- and microelements and trace
elements in leaves, bark [phloem] and roots were determined at the end of vegetation
period by means of ASA atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. The content of
assimilation pigments in leaves was determined with a Perkin-Elmer Model 221 spectrophotometer at the following wavelengths: 440, 645 and 663 nm. The chlorophyll content
was calculated according to the method of Arnon et al. [1956] with modification by
Lichtenthaler and Wellburm [1983], whereas that of carotenoids with the method of Hager and Mayer-Berthenruth [1966]. Elementary composition in the basket willow organs
(leaves, bark [phloem] and roots) was assayed only for the experimental treatment with
sewage sludge.
TABLE 2. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FROM THE OSTRÓW GRABOWSKI MUNICIPAL SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT IN
SZCZECIN (2005)
Tabela 2. W³aœciwoœci i sk³ad chemiczny osadu œciekowego z oczyszczalni biologicznej Ostrów Grabowski w Szczecinie (2005)
TH E C ON TEN T OF
MOISTU R E
pH
TOTAL MAC R OELEMEN TS
TOTAL TR AC E ELEMEN TS
TOTAL
ZawartoϾi [% ]
WlgotnoϾ
KCL
Makroelementy ogó³em
Pi erwi astki œladowe ogó³em
MIC R OELEMEN TS
-1
[% ]
[g·kg s.m.]
[mg·kg-1 s.m.]
Mi kroelementy ogó³em
[mg·kg-1 s.m.]
OR GAN IC
MIN ER AL
N
K
Mg
Ca
P
Fe
Zn
Cu
Mn
Cd
Ni
Pb
Cr
As
Hg
MATTER
MATTER
Substancji
Substancji
organi cznej
mi neralnej
65,56
34.44
84.0
7.29 68.85 0.35 5.18 23.35 30.1 3987 890.0 104.0 423.8 2.0 14.2 97.0 21.0
5.5 0.96
SOURC E: OWN STUD Y.
ród³o: badani a w³asne.
49
The obtained results were statistically elaborated, applying the two-factor analysis of variance
and using StatSoft Statistics 7.1 computer software package. The significance of differences for main
effects and interaction was verified by means of
the Tukey’s test, at the significance level a = 0.05.
Due to homogeneity of variance of errors for respective years, the results were averaged.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Sewage sludge introduced into agricultural land
raises the content of nutrients and organic matter
in soil, which increases plant productivity [Bonerjee et al. 1997, Albadejo et al. 1994], as well as
improves proportions between soil physical, biological and chemical properties [Aggelides, Londra
2000]. In the own experiment, both the type of soil
bed and that of plant growth regulator had a significant effect on the mean content of chlorophyll a
+ b and carotenoids in leaves (Tab. 3). Also a significant effect of the interaction between factors on
the content of assimilation pigments was shown.
The plants growing on the soil bed fertilised with
sewage sludge and treated with 0.1% Atonic solution had a significantly higher content of chlorophyll a + b and carotenoids than those of other experimental variants. When compared to the control
(without Atonic), their content increased by approximately 50%.
In the studies carried out by other authors, referring to the effect of different exogenous plant
growth regulators on assimilation pigments in leaves of crop plants, their varying response was
shown. The application of synthetic plant growth
regulators, such as 6-benzyloaminopurine, did not
have any significant effect on total chlorophyll content in lucerne leaves [Skalska 1992]. However,
synthetic auxins applied for soybean crops decreased the content of chlorophyll a + b [Nahar, Ikeda
2002]. On the other hand, Ahmad et al. [2000] showed an increase in total chlorophyll content in cabbage leaves after application of synthetic auxins.
However, there are no reports on the effect of exo
50
TAB LE 3. TH E MEAN C ON TEN T OF ASSIMILATION PIGMEN TS IN B ASK ET WILLOW LEAVES
AC C OR D IN G TO SOIL B ED AN D GR OWTH R EGU LATOR C ON C EN TR ATION [mg . g-1 F.W.]
Tabela 3. Œredni a zawartoœæ barwni ków asymi lacyjnych w li œci ach wi erzby wi ci owej w zale¿noœci od pod³o¿a
oraz stê¿eni a regulatora wzrostu [mg·g-1 œ. m.]
SU B STR ATU M (FAC TOR I)
GR OWTH R EGU LATOR
MEAN OF
Pod³o¿e (czynni k I)
C ON C EN TR ATION (FAC TOR II)
FAC TOR I
Stê¿eni e regulatora wzrostu (czynni k II)
Œredni a
czynni ka I
ATON IC 0% ATON IC 0.1%
ATON IC
Bez Atoni cu
0.2%
C H LOR OPH YLL A+B /C hlorofi l a + b
SAND Y SILT
1.89
2.45
Refulat
SAND Y SILT + SEWAGE SLUD GE
2.85
3.65
Refulat + osad
MEAN OF FAC TOR II
2.37
3.05
Œredni a czynni ka II
LSD /NIR0,05 I cz – 0,250, LSD /NIR0,05 II cz – 0,543, LSD /NIR0,05 I x II cz. – 0,923
C AR OTEN OID S/Karotenoi dy
SAND Y SILT
0.67
0.97
Refulat
SAND Y SILT + SEWAGE SLUD GE
0.95
1.43
Refulat + osad
MEAN OF FAC TOR II
0.81
1.10
Œredni a czynni ka II
LSD /NIR0,05 I cz. – 0,074, LSD /NIR0,05 II cz. – 0,233, LSD /NIR0,05 I x II cz. – 0,294
2.03
2.02
3.42
3.30
2.72
-
0.77
0.80
1.06
1.13
0.91
-
SOURC E: OWN STUD Y.
ród³o: badani a w³asne.
E
>@
D
D
D
D
D
0
0.1
0.2
$721,&&21&(175$7,21>@
6W
HQLH$WRQLNX>@
6$1'<6,/76(:$*(6/8'*(5HIXODW
RVDG FLHNRZ\
6$1'<6,/75HIXODW
FIGURE 1. CHANGES IN RELATIVE WATER CONTENT
[RWC] IN BEASKET WILLOW ILEAVES ACCORDING TO
ATONIC CONCENTRATION ON DIFFERENT SUBSTRATA [%]
SOURCE: OWN STUDY.
Rysunek 1. Zmiany wzglêdnej zawartoœci wody [RWC] w
liœciach wierzby wiciowej w zale¿noœci od stê¿enia
Atoniku stosowanego na ró¿nych pod³o¿ach [%]
ród³o: badania w³asne.
genous plant growth regulators
on assimilation pigment concentration in leaves of trees and shrubs,
including the Salix sp. genus.
Relative water content (RWC)
is a measure of water saturation of
leaf tissues. Their hydration degree
is evidence of the biochemical and
physiological activity of leaves. The
studies on RWC were carried out,
among others, on plants growing under the water stress that induced a
decrease in the value of that indicator [Pascul et al. 2004].
In the present experiment, a significant effect of the interaction
between soil bed and Atonic concentration on the relative water
content in the basket willow Bjor
clone leaves was showed. In the
51
ATONIC CONCENTRATION/Stê¿enie Atoniku [%]
3
/6'IRU,[ ,,
/6' IRU,[,,
QV
1,5GOD,[,,
1,5 GOD,[,,
UQ
0J
&D
g .kg-1 D.M./s.m.
g .kg-1 D.M./s.m.
.
g .kg-1 D.M./s.m.
g .kg-1 D.M./s.m.
/6' IRU,[,,
1,5GOD,[,,
LEGEND/Legenda
LEAVES/Liœcie
ROOT/Korzeñ
BARK/Kora
1,5GOD,[,,
1D
g .kg-1 D.M./s.m.
FIGURE 2. CONTENT OF MACROELEMENTS (P,
K, Ca, Mg, Na) IN BASKET WILLOW CLONE
BJOR ORGANS ACCORDING TO ATONIC
CONCENTRATION [g.kg-1 D.M.]
SOURCE: OWN STUDY.
Rysunek 2. Zawartoœæ makroelementów
(P, K, Ca, Mg, Na) w ró¿nych organach wierzby
wiciowej klonu Bjor w zale¿noœci od zastosowania trzech stê¿eñ stymulatora wzrostu Atonik
[g . kg-1 s.m.]
ród³o: badania w³asne.
/6'IRU,[,,
/6' IRU,[,,
QV
1,5 GOD,[,,
UQ
plants growing on soil bed with sewage sludge and treated with 0.1% Atonic solution, a
significantly higher water saturation of leaf tissues was found (RWC approx. 96%) than
in those of other experimental treatments (RWC from 72 to 87%) (Fig. 1). This may point
to a favourable effect of that interaction on the physiological activity of basket willow and
its higher productivity. On the other hand, Czapla [2003] showed a significant effect of
synthetic plant growth regulators on increased intake of nutrients and their higher concentration in particular plant organs. Exogenous auxins or gibberellins induced an increase in the percentage of macroelements (N, P, K Na, Ca and Mg) in the over-ground
plant organs when compared with roots.
0
0.1
0.2
LEAVES/Li œci e
BARK/Kora
ROOTS/ Korzeni e
D OSES/D awki
ORGANS/OrganY
dxo
P
7.25
15.06
12.90
14.05
7.48
7.57
5.702
0.152
s.d./r.i
K
Mg
6.10
1.40
5.84
2.06
5.47
1.21
8.71
3.41
4.67
2.13
3.94
1.76
r.n.
0.701.
0.191 0.379
n.s./r.n. s.d./r.i
Ca
4.71
6.71
5.48
7.86
3.76
4.45
1.230
3.023
s.d./r.i
Na
0.50
0.53
0.46
0.96
0.33
0.61
r.n.
0.070
n.s./r.n.
Fe
109.84
137.16
104.40
186.58
118.62
46.17
r.n.
72.280
s.d./r.i
Mn
30.97
37.37
55.61
63.75
22.44
48.95
22.646
55.590
s.d./r.i
Zn
Cu
Cd
Ni
60.29 4.09
0.37
2.48
52.04
6.17
0.57
4.39
68.04 4.90
0.49
3.61
36.82
7.17
0.64
2.03
89.35
5.35
0.26
2.49
54.20
7.92
0.19
5.59
15.033
r.n.
r.n.
r.n.
49.991 2.280 0.262 3.620
s.d./r.i n.s./r.n. n.s./r.n. n.s./r.n.
LSD 0,05 – LEAST SIGNIFIC ANT D IFFERENC E, n.s. – NON- SIGNIFIC ANT D IFFERENC E, s.d. – SIGNIFIC ANT D IFFERENC ES
SOURC E: OWN C ALC ULATIONS
NIR0,05 – najmni ejsza i stotna ró¿ni ca, r.n. – ró¿ni ce ni ei stotne, r.i . – ró¿ni ce i stotne.
ród³o: obli czeni a w³asne.
LSD /NIR0,05
ORGAN (o)
Organ (o)
C ONC ENTRATION (d)
Stê¿eni e (d)
[%]
1.32
2.46
5.83
2.43
2.18
1.11
2.343
1.003
s.d./r.i
Pb
0.73
1.05
0.80
0.74
0.59
1.25
r.n.
0.520
n.s./r.n.
Co
TAB LE 4. C ON TEN T OF MAC R OELEMEN TS, MIC R OELEMEN TS AN D TR AC E ELEMEN TS IN SA LI X VI M I N A LI S FOR R ESPEC TIVE ATON IC
C ON C EN TR ATION S OF AN D PLAN T OR GAN S
Tabela. 4. Zawartoœæ makroelementów, mi krosk³adni ków i pi erwi astków œladowych w Sal i x vi m i nal i s dla poszczególnych stê¿eñ atoni ku i organów roœli ny
OB JEC T STU D IES
MAC R OELEMEN TS
MIC R OELEMEN TS
TR AC E ELEMEN T
Obi ekt badañ
Makroelementy [g·kg-1s.m.]
Mi kroelementy [mg·kg-1s.m.] Pi erwi astki œladowe [mg·kg-1s.m.]
52
Our results showed that bioaccumulation of all analysed chemical
elements, i.e. macro- (P, Mg, Ca, K,
and Na) and microelements (Cu, Fe,
Mn, and Zn) and trace elements (Cd,
Pb, Ni, and Co), was significantly
affected by the type of basket willow Bjor clon organ. This corroborates the findings of Fircks at al.
[2001] who report that the accumulation ability of the Salix sp. genus
depends mainly on the type of plant
organ. The results in Table 4 show
the willow leaves to accumulate
most abundantly macroelements,
iron and manganese (microelements)
and lead (trace elements). As far as
the roots are concerned, copper, nickel and cobalt were found to be most
abundant in them, whereas zinc prevailed in the bark [phloem]. Also a
significant effect of Atonic plant
growth regulator on the concentration of 6 chemical elements (P, Mg,
Ca, Mn, Zn and Pb), out of 13 ones
analysed, was shown (Tab. 4).
A significant effect of the interaction between Atonic concentrations and Bjor clone organs on the
bioaccumulation of some chemical
elements was also found (Fig. 2 and
3). The Atonic solution in a concentration of 0.1% significantly affected an increase of phosphorus, calcium and lead contents in willow leaves as well as of magnesium content in its bark [phloem]. On the
other hand, a two-fold higher concentration of that plant growth regulator had a positive and significant
effect on manganese bioaccumulation in willow leaves and a negative
and significant one on that of iron
and zinc in the same organs. In case
53
/6' IRU,[,,
QV
1,5GOD,[,,
UQ
mg .kg-1 D.M./s.m.
/6'IRU,[,,
1,5 GOD,[,,
mg .kg-1 D.M./s.m.
=Q
0Q
)H
/6'IRU,[,,
/6' IRU,[,,
1,5GOD,[,,
1,5GOD,[,,
&G
mg .kg-1 D.M./s.m.
mg .kg-1 D.M./s.m.
mg .kg-1 D.M./s.m.
mg .kg-1 D.M./s.m.
&X
/6' IRU,[,,
QV
1,5 GOD,[,,
UQ
3E
&R
mg .kg-1 D.M./s.m.
mg .kg-1 D.M./s.m.
ATONIC CONCENTRATION/Stê¿enie Atoniku [%]
/6'IRU,[,,
QV
1,5GOD,[,,
UQ
1L
/6'IRU,[,,
/6'IRU,[,,
QV
1,5GOD,[,,
1,5GOD,[,,
UQ
LEGEND/Legenda
LEAVES/Liœcie
ROOT/Korzeñ
BARK/Kora
FIGURE 3. CONTENT OF MICROELEMENTS (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) AND TRACE
ELEMENTS (Cd, Co, Pb, Ni) IN BASKET WILLOW CLONE BJOR ORGANS
ACCORDING TO ATONIC CONCENTRATION [mg . kg-1 F.W.]
SOURCE: OWN STUDY.
Rysunek 3. Zawartoœæ mikroelementów (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) i pierwiastków œladowych
(Cd, Co, Pb, Ni) w ró¿nych organach wierzby wiciowej klonu Bjor w zale¿noœci od
zastosowania trzech stê¿eñ stymulatora wzrostu Atonik [mg . kg-1 s.m.]
ród³o: badania w³asne.
54
of other chemical elements, an increase in their contents was generally observed in particular plant organs after spraying the plants with 0.1% Atonic solution, this being however statistically non-significant (Tab. 4).
Klang-Westin and Ericson [2003] and Micha³owski and Go³aœ [2001] showed a great
ability of Salix viminalis to bioaccumulate both organogenous elements and heavy metals and the same its usefulness in sewage sludge utilisation. It is also a plant that is
resistant to too large content of heavy metals in soil bed.
CONCLUSIONS
1. The highest physiological activity of the basket willow Bjor clone, defined by significant increase of assimilation pigment content, relative water content and chemical
element contents, was found after application of 0.1% Atonic solution in the treatment with sewage sludge.
2. Atonic plant growth regulator at the concentration of 0.1% can be used for improving
phytoremediation abilities of the basket willow Bjor clone cultivated on a soil bed with
excessive concentration of biogenic chemical elements and heavy metals.
3. The application of higher Atonic plant growth regulator concentrations than 0.1% for
the Bjor clone did not have any significant effect on its physiological indicators.
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sp. Zesz. Prob. Post. Nauk Roln., 468, 69-77.
Wróbel J. 2002: Efekt stosowania mieszaniny nitrofenolanów i nitroguajakolanu w uprawie Salix viminalis
L prowadzonej na pod³o¿u antropogenicznym. Zesz. Prob. Post. Nauk Roln., 481, 615-620.
56
INFLUENCE OF ETEPHON ON FLOWERING OF EASY POT
FREESIA CULTIVATED IN SPRING-SUMMER SEASON
Piotr ¯urawik
Agricultural University in Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland
INTRODUCTION
Plant hormones affect intensely the growth and flowering of plants [Jankiewicz 1997].
Ethylene is one of them – colourless gas of characteristic sweetish smell, occurring commonly in atmosphere in concentration 0.0003 µl . dm-3 [Yang 1980]. It is produced by all the
plant tissues, fungi and bacteria [Jankiewicz 1997]. It is also a component of smoke emerging during burning of wood and fresh straw [Uyemura, Imanishi 1983]. One can affect
plants with a gas form of this compound in hermetic chambers or use etephon (C2H6ClO3P);
in crystalline form of grey-white substance dissolved in water, which after infiltrating into
the tissue breaks up, releasing ethylene [Reid 1992]. The influence of ethylene depends on
many factors: species, cultivar, phase of plant development [Moe 1980], concentration and
length of treating, temperature during plant treating and facilities during growth of plants
after treating [Kawa-Miszczak et al. 1997, Startek, ¯urawik 2004].
In experiments conducted by Japanese, Chinese and Korean authors it was found
that in freesia cultivation ethylene used in the gas form as a compound of smoke affects
interruptions or shortening of a period of corms dermancy [Uyemura, Imanishi 1983, Shi
et al. 1997, Lee et al. 1998]. However, used in a form of etephon to corms soaking before
planting considerably delays growth and development of freesia cultivated for cut flower
[Mynett et al. 2001] or as a pot plant [Startek, ¯urawik 2004]. Etephon also intensely
decreases height of plants and stimulates growth of lateral buds, what increases number
of shoots growing from corm. Leaves are more covered with wax coating and are characterized by wider and fatter leaf blades [Startek, ¯urawik 2005]. This compound affects also yield of offspring corms. It increases coefficient of corms number increase and
it decreases coefficient of corms weight increase [¯urawik, Startek 2007].
Ethylene affects decrease of quality of obtained flowers of freesia cultivated for cut
flower [Imanishi, Berghoef 1986]. There is no information about influence of etephon on
decorative value of pot plants. That is why it was found proper to examine the effect of
etephon on flowering of Easy Pot Freesia.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The experiments were conducted in unheated foil tunnel in the years 2001-2002. The
offspring corms of circumference +3 (above 3 cm) were the plant material. Three cultivars of Easy Pot Freesia: `Gompey`, `Popey` and `Suzy`, suitable for pot cultivation without using of growth retardants, were examined. Before storing and planting corms of
57
freesia were treated for 30 minutes with wet mixture of plant protection preparations:
suspension Kaptan 50 WP in concentration 1.5%, Benlate 50 WP in concentration 0.4%
and Actellic 500 EC in concentration 0.1%. The corms were exposed to preparation for
15 weeks in a room of temperature 28-30oC and relative moisture 80-85%. In a moment
when the corms had properly formed and swelled apical buds and perceptible root boots
they were treated with growth regulator. In conducted experiments corms were treated
with etephon (source of ethylene); using two preparations: Flordimex 420 SL (in the year
2000) and Ethrel 480 SL (in the year 2001). There were five concentrations of etephon
used: 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 mg . dm-3. The control corms were soaked in water.
Prepared solutions were poured into containers and the corms were entirely sunk in
them. Then the containers were hermetically closed and put into a room without light, of
temperature 28-30oC. The corms were soaked for 24 hours.
Damp corms were planted to 14-cm pots, 2-3 cm below medium level and below a
top pot edge. As a medium sphagnum peat of pH 3.8, adjusted to pH 6.2 with 5 g . dm-3
chalk and 5 g . dm-3 dolomite, was used. Fertilizer of slow activity Osmocote Plus in dose
5 g . dm-3 was used to supplement deficiency of nutritive components. Pots with planted
corms were put on the tables in the foil tunnel. There was no cooling of medium during
cultivation and temperature depended on the weather and ranged from 10 to 280C in
spring and from 18 to 350C in summer.
The experiments were conducted in total randomization. There were 18 experimental objects made of: cultivars (3) x concentration of etephon (6). Each object consisted of
20 corms, which were divided into 4 replications – 5 corms in the pot.
During flowering of freesia length of first inflorescence shoot, length of inflorescence, number of flowers in inflorescence and diameter of first flower in inflorescence were
examined. Measurements were conducted in a moment when the first flower in inflorescence was developed. Results were statistically verified by analysis of variance and
evaluated by multiple Tukey`s test at the significance level a = 0.05.
RESULTS
The length of first inflorescence shoot in the year 2001 depended significantly on
cultivar and concentrations of etephon used to corms soaking (Tab. 1). Freesias `Gompey` formed the longest shoots, `Suzy` – shorter shoots and `Popey` – the shortest shoots.
Freesias cultivated from corms soaked in water and in etephon in concentration 125 mg
.
dm-3 gave the longest first inflorescence shoots. Increase of concentration of growth
regulator decreased the length of first inflorescence shoots. Influence of concentrations
500 and 1000 mg . dm-3 on that trait was the strongest and shoots in those objects were
the shortest. Each cultivar reacted differently to used concentrations of etephon. Freesias `Popey` formed the longest shoots in the control object, however the shortest –
when its corms were treated with regulator in concentration 1000 mg . dm-3. Freesias
`Suzy` and `Popey` gave the longest shoots when their corms were soaked in water
before planting, and the shortest, when etephon in concentrations 500 and 1000 mg . dm3
was used. Freesias `Gompey` gave the longest shoots when regulator in concentration
125 mg . dm-3 was used and the shortest – in concentrations 500 and 1000 mg . dm-3. In
58
the experiments conducted in the year 2002, similarly to the year 2001, both examined in
the experiments factors: cultivar and concentration of etephon affected significantly the
length of first inflorescence shoot (Tab. 1). In the year 2002, similarly to the previous
year, freesias `Gompey` were characterized by the longest inflorescence shoots and
freesias `Popey` – by the shortest inflorescence shoots. The control plants formed
significantly longer first inflorescence shoots than plants from corms soaked in etephon
in concentration 1000 mg . dm-3. It was proved that cultivars reacted differently to used
etephon. Freesias `Suzy` formed significantly longer inflorescence shoots in the control
object, only in comparison with the object where corms were treated before planting
with regulator in concentration 1000 mg . dm-3. The control freesias `Gompey` formed
significantly longer shoots than freesias cultivated from corms soaked in etephon in
concentrations 125 and 1000 mg . dm-3. There was no significant influence of growth
regulator on the length of first inflorescence shoots of freesias `Popey`.
TAB LE 1. LEN GTH OF FIR ST IN FLOR ESC EN C E SH OOT [C M] OF EASY POT FR EESIA D EPEN D IN G
ON C U LTIVAR AN D C ON C EN TR ATION OF ETEPH ON
Tabela 1. D ³ugoœæ pêdu kwi atostanowego I rzêdu [cm] u frezji z grupy Easy Pot w zale¿noœci od odmi any
i stê¿eni a etefonu
MEAN
YEAR
C U LTIVAR
C ON C EN TR ATION OF ETEPH ON (R )
Œredni a (O)
Rok
Odmi ana (O)
Stê¿eni e etefonu [mg·dm-3]
0
1 25
250
500
1 000
2000
2001
n.i .s.
n.i .s.
n.i .s.
6.5
8.8
10.9
11.3
9.0
6.7
5.1
n.i .s.
O – 1.08; R – 1.63; R(O) – 2.83; O(R) – 2.42
8.7
P opey
6.5
7.6
8.0
7.7
7.2
n.i .s.
Suzy
11.0
9.4
10.4
7.6
6.7
n.i .s.
Gompey
15.2
9.8
11.4
11.9
8.8
n.i .s.
MEAN
Œredni a (R)
10.9
8.9
9.9
9.0
7.6
n.i .s.
LSD /NIR a = 0.05
O – 1.58; R – 2.39; R(O – 4.14; O(R) – 3.54
n.i .s. – NO INFLORESC ENC E SHOOTS
SOURC E: OWN STUD Y.
n.i .s – brak pêdów kwi atostanowych
ród³o: badani a w³asne.
7.4
9.0
11.4
2002
P opey
Suzy
Gompey
MEAN
Œredni a (R)
LSD /NIR a = 0.05
9.4
12.1
13.2
11.6
7.0
11.2
15.7
6.6
8.7
11.7
5.7
6.3
8.3
3.9
6.0
5.5
9.3
It was found that both cultivar and concentration of etephon influenced the length of
first inflorescence shoot of Easy Pot Freesia in the year 2001 (Tab. 2). Freesias `Popey`
formed 30.2% longer inflorescences than `Suzy` and 35.5% longer inflorescences than
`Gompey`. In the first year of experiments the control plants and plants obtained from
corms soaked in etephon in the lowest concentration – 125 mg . dm-3 gave the longest
inflorescences however, those plants whose corms were treated before planting with
etephon in concentration 1000 mg . dm-3 gave the shortest inflorescences. Significant
interaction between cultivars and concentration of etephon was proved. Freesias `Popey`
formed the longest inflorescences, when the corms before planting were soaked in the
preparation in concentration 125 mg . dm-3 however, the shortest inflorescences were
obtained, when the corms were treated with concentration 1000 mg . dm-3. Increasing
concentration of etephon shortened inflorescences of freesias `Suzy`. Treating corms
59
TAB LE 2. LEN GTH OF FIR ST IN FLOR ESC EN C E [C M] OF EASY POT FR EESIA D EPEN D IN G ON
C U LTIVAR AN D C ON C EN TR ATION OF ETEPH ON
Tabela 2. D ³ugoœæ kwi atostanu I rzêdu [cm] u frezji z grupy Easy Pot w zale¿noœci od odmi any i stê¿eni a
etefonu
YEAR
C U LTIVAR
C ON C EN TR ATION OF ETEPH ON (R)
MEAN
Rok
Odmi ana (O)
Stê¿eni e etefonu [mg·dm-3]
Œredni a (O)
0
1 25
250
500
1 000
2000
2001
2002
P opey
Suzy
Gompey
MEAN
Œredni a (R)
LSD /NIR a = 0.05
7.35
5.90
4.55
5.93
P opey
5.83
Suzy
4.98
Gompey
5.10
MEAN
Œredni a (R)
5.30
LSD /NIR a = 0.05
n.s. – NO SIGNIFIC ANC E
n.i .s. – NO INFLORESC ENC E SHOOTS
SOURC E: OWN STUD Y.
r.n. – ró¿ni ce ni ei stotne
n.i s. – brak pêdów kwi atostanowych
ród³o: badani a w³asne.
8.18
4.68
4.60
6.40
4.30
3.85
6.13
4.30
3.85
4.93
3.88
4.03
n.i .s.
n.i .s.
n.i .s.
5.82
4.85
4.90
4.28
n.i .s.
O – 0.3708; R – 0.560; R(O) – 0.970; O(R) – 0.828
6.53
4.20
4.10
6.15
4.40
4.05
6.25
4.4.0
3.73
4.45
4.58
3.58
6.60
4.61
4.26
5.16
n.i .s.
n.i .s.
n.i .s.
5.84
4.51
4.11
4.94
4.87
4.79
4.20
n.i .s.
O – 0.598; R – 0.903; R x O (n.s./r.n.)
4.82
with that regulator did not significantly influence the length of inflorescences formed by
freesias `Gompey` . In the following year of experiments both examined factors determined significantly the length of first inflorescences of examined cultivars of freesia (Tab.
2). Freesias `Popey` formed longer inflorescences, but differences in the length of inflorescences between that cultivar and cultivars `Suzy` and `Gompey` in current year were
smaller than in the year 2001 and amounted to 22.8% and 29.6%, respectively. In the
year 2002 only inflorescences of the control plants and obtained from corms treated
before planting with etephon in concentration 1000 mg • dm-3 differed significantly. There
was no significant interaction between cultivars and concentration of etephon.
In the year 2001 number of flowers in first inflorescence formed by evaluated cultivars of freesia depended significantly on cultivar traits and on used concentration of
growth regulator (Tab. 3). Freesias `Popey` formed the most flowers in inflorescence:
17.3% more than `Gompey` and 21.8% more than `Suzy`. In all the objects, where corms
were treated with etephon before planting, plants were characterized by smaller number
of flowers in inflorescences than the control plants. The higher concentration of etephon
was, the fewer flowers in inflorescences of evaluated cultivars were formed. Freesias
cultivated from corms soaked in regulator in concentration 1000 mg . dm-3 gave the smallest number of flowers (on an average 24.0% less) in relation to control.
There was no significant interaction between cultivars and concentration of etephon.
Both factors used in the experiments: cultivars and concentration of etephon significantly
affected the number of flowers in the first inflorescence of examined freesia cultivars in
the next year of experiments, similarly to the year 2001 (Tab. 3). Freesias `Popey` gave
more flowers in inflorescences, `Suzy` and `Gompey` gave fewer. Similarly to the year
60
TAB LE 3. N U MB ER OF FLOWER S IN FIR ST IN FLOR ESC EN C E OF EASY POT FR EESIA
D EPEN D IN G ON C U LTIVAR AN D C ON C EN TR ATION OF ETEPH ON
Tabela 3. Li czba kwi atów w kwi atostani e I rzêdu u frezji z grupy Easy Pot w zale¿noœci od odmi any i stê¿eni a
etefonu
YEAR
Rok
C U LTIVAR
Odmi ana (O)
0
2001
2002
P opey
Suzy
Gompey
MEAN
Œredni a (R)
LSD /NIRa = 0.05
P opey
Suzy
Gompey
MEAN
Œredni a (R)
LSD /NIR a = 0.05
n.s. – NO SIGNIFIC ANC E
n.f. – NO FLOWERS
SOURC E: OWN STUD Y.
r.n. – róŸ¿ni ce ni ei stotne
n.f. – brak kwi atów.
ród³o: bafdani a w³asne.
10.43
8.58
8.30
9.10
8.88
8.45
8.30
8.54
C ON C EN TR ATION OF ETEPH ON (R)
Stê¿eni e etefonu [mg·dm-3]
1 25
250
500
1 000
9.18
6.70
7.55
8.38
6.68
7.23
8.25
6.63
6.75
8.00
6.00
6.75
7.81
7.43
7.21
6.92
O – 0.399; R – 0.602; R x O (n.s./r.n.)
9.08
7.68
7.63
9.13
7.33
7.58
9.00
7.33
6.88
6.60
7.93
5.88
MEAN
Œredni a (O)
2000
n.f.
n.f.
n.f.
8.85
6.92
7.32
n.f.
7.69
n.f.
n.f.
n.f.
8.54
7.74
7.25
n.f.
8.13
8.01
7.73
6.81
O – 0.497; R – 0.7500; R(O) – 1.300; O(R) – 1.110
7.84
2001, the control freesias formed the most flowers in inflorescences (8.54) however,
those freesias which were obtained from corms treated with etephon in concentration
1000 mg . dm-3 formed the fewest flowers in inflorescences. In the experiment conducted
in the year 2002 cultivars reacted differently to used concentrations of etephon. Freesias
`Popey` formed significantly more flowers in first inflorescence in the control object and
when its corms were soaked in regulator in concentrations 125, 250 and 500 mg . dm-3 in
comparison with freesias obtained from corms soaked in solution in concentration 1000
mg . dm-3. `Gompey` reacted differently. Significant differences were found only between the control plants (8.30 flowers per spike) and those treated with regulator in concentration 1000 mg . dm-3 (5.88 flowers per spike). It was not proven that etephon using
significantly affected number of flowers in inflorescence of freesias `Suzy`.
In the experiment conducted in the year 2001 cultivar traits and used concentration of
etephon significantly influenced diameter of flower in first inflorescence of Easy Pot
Freesia (Tab. 4). Freesias `Gompey` were characterized by slightly larger flowers than
freesias of other evaluated cultivars. Soaking corms before planting in etephon decreased diameter of obtained flowers. The control plants and plants cultivated from corms
soaked in etephon in concentration 125 mg . dm-3 formed the greatest flowers however,
freesias from corms treated with regulator in concentration 1000 mg . dm-3 formed the
smallest flowers. In the following year of experiments, similarly to the year 2001, both
factors of experiment influenced significantly diameter of flowers in the first inflorescence of evaluated cultivars (Tab. 4). Freesias `Gompey` and `Suzy` formed greater flowers
than freesias `Popey` in the year 2002. In the year 2002 the plants cultivated in object
where concentration of etephon was 500 mg . dm-3 gave greater flowers only in compa-
61
TAB LE 4. D IAMETER OF FIR ST FLOWER IN FIR ST IN FLOR ESC EN C E [C M] OF EASY POT FR EESIA
D EPEN D IN G ON C U LTIVAR AN D C ON C EN TR ATION OF ETEPH ON
Tabela 4. Œredni ca pi erwszego kwi atu w kwi atostani e I rzêdu [cm] u frezji z grupy Easy Pot w zale¿noœci od
odmi any i stê¿eni a etefonu
YEAR
Rok
C U LTIVAR
Odmi ana (O)
0
2001
P opey
Suzy
Gompey
MEAN
Œredni a (R)
LSD /NIR a = 0.05
2002
C ON C EN TR ATION OF ETEPH ON (R)
Stê¿eni e etefonu [mg·dm-3]
1 25
250
500
1 000
4.78
4.89
5.15
4.93
P opey
4.18
Suzy
4.83
Gompey
5.20
MEAN
Œredni a (R)
4.73
LSD /NIR a = 0.05
EXPLANATIONS AND SOURC E: SEE TAB. 3
Objasni eni a i Ÿród³o: jak w tab. 3.
4.60
4.63
5.25
4.33
4.40
4.83
4.33
4.38
4.43
3.98
4.33
4.08
4.83
4.52
4.38
4.13
O – 0.200; R – 0.302; R x O (n.s./r.n.)
4.30
4.28
4.68
3.95
4.53
4.80
4.60
4.90
5.33
4.23
4.88
4.60
4.42
4.43
4.94
4.57
O – 0.291; R – 0.440; R x O (n.s./r.n.)
MEAN
Œredni a (O)
2000
n.f
n.f.
n.f.
4.40
4.52
4.75
n.f.
4.56
n.f
n.f.
n.f.
4.25
4.68
4.92
n.f.
4.62
rison with freesias whose corms were treated with etephon in concentrations 125 and
250 mg . dm-3. In both years of experiments there was no significant interaction between
cultivars and concentrations of etephon.
DISCUSSION
Results obtained in own experiments are conformable with results of Berghoef et al.
[1986] that ethylene, besides its influence on term of flowering, affects also decorative
value of freesia. In experiments conducted by Startek and ¯urawik [2005] with Easy Pot
Freesia cultivated in summer-autumn season ethylene used in higher temperatures during
growth and in concentrations 1000 and 2000 mg . dm-3 strongly delayed and reduced
flowering of plants. During freesia cultivation in spring-summer season, at lower temperatures, plants did not burst into blossom as a result of ethylene used in concentration
2000 mg . dm-3.
According to Imanishi and Fortainier [1983] and Startek and ¯urawik [2005] treating
corms with ethylene gives more shoots growing from corm, but decreases quality of
flowers obtained from those corms. In own experiments the growth regulator decreased
the decorative value of plants. The strongest negative influence was found when before
planting corms were soaked in etephon in concentration 1000 mg . dm-3. The plants
obtained from corms treated with that concentration, in comparison with the control plants,
were characterized by 21-28% shorter inflorescences, formed 21-24% less flowers in
inflorescence and were characterized by 4-17% smaller diameter of flowers.
In own experiments etephon intensely decreased the length of obtained inflorescence
shoots. Jankiewicz [1997] is of the opinion that inhibition of shoot top growth can be a result
of DNA synthesis and cell divisions inhibition, in consequence of etephon using. Treating
corms with etephon in lowest concentration 125 and 500 mg . dm-3 affects slightly
62
deteriorating of decorative value of freesia. Although obtained inflorescences are stocky,
compact and do not need to be supported during flowering.
The influence of ethylene on plants is a very complicated process, dependent on
many cultivation factors and requiring further experiments.
CONCLUSIONS
1. Soaking of prepared corms in etephon decreases the decorative value of freesias.
The plants obtained in this way are characterized by shorter spikes, smaller number
of flowers and smaller diameter of flowers.
2. Under the influence of etephon inflorescences are stocky, compact, they do not need
to be supported during flowering and do not break during transport.
3. Among all the used concentrations of etephon 1000 and 2000 mg . dm-3 had the strongest influence on Easy Pot Freesia. Plants obtained from corms treated with etephon
in concentration 1000 mg . dm-3 are characterized by the shortest inflorescences and
the smallest number and diameter of flowers. However, freesias from corms treated
with etephon in concentration 2000 mg . dm-3 do not burst into bloom during six months of cultivation.
REFERENCES
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Freesia corms. Acta Hort., 177(2), 631-635.
Imanishi H., Berghoef J. 1986: Some factors affecting dormancy-breaking by ethylene in freesia corms.
Acta Hort., 177(2), 637-640.
Imanishi H., Fortainier E.J. 1983: Effects of exposing freesia corms to ethylene or to smoke on dormancybreaking and flowering. Sci. Hort., 18, 381-389.
Jankiewicz L.S. 1997: Regulatory wzrostu i rozwoju roœlin. W³aœciwoœci i dzia³anie. PWN, Warszawa,
124-143.
Kawa-Miszczak L., Wêgrzynowicz-Lesiak E., Saniewski M. 1997: Pozytywny wp³yw etylenu na
wzrost i rozwój ozdobnych roœlin cebulowych i bulwiastych. Post. Nauk Roln., 1, 49-61.
Moe R. 1980: The use of etephon for control of plant height in daffodils and tulips. Acta Hort., 109: 197-204.
Lee J.J., Jeong J.S., Kim J.C. 1998: Effects of high-temperature storage and ethylene on breaking dormancy of freesia corms. J. Korean Soc. Hortic. Sci., 39 (6): 789-93.
Mynett K., Startek L., ¯urawik P., P³oszaj B. 2001: Wp³yw Gibrescolu i Flordimexu na wschody i wzrost
frezji ogrodowej. Rocz. AR Pozn. CCCXXXII. Ogrodn. 33, 103-110.
Reid M.S. 1992: Postharvest handling systems: ornamental crops. University of California, 201-203.
Shi Y.M., Tao Y.W., Qin W.Y., Fei X.N. 1997: Effects of chiling and plant growth regulators of freesia
flowering. Acta Hort. Sinica, 24 (2): 185-188.
Startek L., ¯urawik P. 2004: Wp³yw niektórych regulatorów wzrostu na przebieg i d³ugoœæ faz rozwojowych frezji z grupy Easy Pot. Czêœæ II. Etefon. Fol. Univ. Agric. Stetin. Agricultura, 236, 201-206.
Startek L., ¯urawik P. 2005: Effect of etephon on easy pot freesia. Acta Hortic., 673, 617-623.
Uemura S., Imanishi H. 1983: Effects of gaseous compounds in smoke on dormancy release in freesia
corms. Sci. Hort., 20, 91-99.
Yang S. F. 1980: Regulation of ethylene biosynthesis. Hort. Sci., 15, 238–243.
¯urawik P., Startek L. 2007: Wielkoœæ i jakoœæ plonu bulw potomnych frezji z grupy Easy Pot w zale¿noœci od stê¿enia etefonu. Rocz. AR Pozn. CCCLXXXIII, Ogrodn. 41, 253-257.
63
WP£YW BIOPREPARATÓW NA ROZWÓJ POCZ¥TKOWY
WYBRANYCH GATUNKÓW TRAW STOSOWANYCH PRZY
REKULTYWACJI SK£ADOWISK ODPADÓW KOMUNALNYCH
Daria G¹bka, Karol Wolski
STRESZCZENIE
Biopreparaty dzia³aj¹ na system korzeniowy, zwiêkszaj¹c zdolnoœæ przyswajania substancji od¿ywczych z pod³o¿a. Zawieraj¹ ró¿ne substancje i mikroorganizmy, dziêki którym uodparniaj¹ roœlinê na szkodliwe czynniki œrodowiskowe. W przeprowadzonych badaniach okreœlono wp³yw biopreparatów na poszczególne gatunki traw, zastosowane w rekultywacji skarp sk³adowiska odpadów komunalnych Swojczyce
we Wroc³awiu.
Ca³oœæ obiektu badawczego podzielono na dwa doœwiadczenia, które ró¿ni¹ siê norm¹ wysiewu (1 lub
2 ziarniaki/cm2). Doœwiadczenia za³o¿ono wg metody pasów prostopad³ych, z dwoma czynnikami: (1)
poszczególne gatunki i odmiany traw, (2) zastosowanie biopreparatów vs obiekt kontrolny – nietraktowany.
Oceniaj¹c skutecznoœæ biopreparatów, poddano analizie wschody traw (szt./m2) po 4, 6 oraz 8 tygodniach
na badanych obiektach (z biopreparatem vs. obiekt kontrolny) dla 2 norm wysiewu.
NajwyraŸniejsze efekty dzia³ania biopreparatu wyst¹pi³y po 6 tygodniach od wysiewu. Biopreparaty
uaktywniaj¹ siê w glebie po ok. 4 tygodniach. W doœwiadczeniu z 2 ziarniakami na jednostce powierzchni
(cm2) stwierdzono dzia³anie biopreparatu po 4 tygodniach. Wœród zastosowanych odmian traw na pod³o¿u
z biopreparatem najlepiej rozwija³y siê: Lolium perenne `Inka`, Festuca arundinacea `Asterix`, Lolium
perenne `Pinia`, Poa pratensis `Alicja`, Festuca rubra `Adio`, Festuca ovina `Noni`. Zwiêkszenie normy
wysiewu przy jednoczesnym zastosowaniu biopreparatu, spowodowa³o zahamowanie wzrostu niektórych
gatunków traw i ich odmian.
Zastosowane biopreparaty przyczyniaj¹ siê do lepszego wzrostu i rozwoju traw. Kszta³tuj¹ lepsze
warunki rozwoju, umo¿liwiaj¹ wzrost nawet w trudnych warunkach œrodowiskowych. Dzia³anie biopreparatu zale¿y zarówno od gatunku i odmiany traw, jak i od normy wysiewu i od przebiegu pogody.
ADRES DO KORESPONDENCJI:
mgr in¿. Daria G¹bka, dr hab. Karol Wolski, prof. nadzw.
Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy we Wroc³awiu
Katedra £¹karstwa i Kszta³towania Terenów Zieleni
Pl. Grunwaldzki 24a
50-363 Wroc³aw
tel. (0 71) 320 16 47
e-mail: [email protected]
64
WP£YW BIOSTYMULATORA ASAHI SL NA ROŒLINY SZAR£ATU
(AMARANTHUS SPP.) OZDOBNEGO EKSPONOWANE NA ZASOLENIE
W POD£O¯U
Mariola Wrochna, Barbara £ata, Bo¿enna Borkowska, Helena Gawroñska
STRESZCZENIE
W pracy badano wp³yw ochronnego dzia³ania biostymulatora Asahi SL na wzrost i wybrane procesy
fizjologiczno-biochemiczne roœlin 3-ch odmian szar³atu ozdobnego: A. paniculatus L. `Copper Moutain` i
`Monarch` oraz A. caudatus L. `Pony Tail` rosn¹cych w obecnoœci soli do odladzania ulic. Stwierdzono, ¿e
obecnoœæ soli w pod³o¿u z regu³y obni¿a³a zarówno œwie¿¹, jak i such¹ masê roœlin, sprawnoœæ aparatu
fotosyntetycznego, RWC oraz integralnoœæ b³on. Zwiêksza³ siê natomiast poziom anionorodnika ponadtlenkowego i zmienia³a siê aktywnoœæ badanych enzymów. Zastosowanie biostymulatora Asahi SL powodowa³o bardzo czêsto zmniejszenie negatywnych skutków zasolenia, przez zwiêkszenie akumulacji biomasy
oraz zmiany w akumulacji badanych jonów. Traktowanie biostymulatorem powodowa³o tak¿e podwy¿szenie sprawnoœci aparatu fotosyntetycznego przez zwiêkszenie zawartoœci chlorofilu oraz wy¿sze (Fv/Fo),
(Fo/Fm) i qP, a aktywnoœæ enzymów systemu antyoksydacyjnego zwiêksza³a siê w wiêkszym stopniu ni¿
poziom anionorodnika ponadtlenkowego. Reakcja roœlin na Asahi SL by³a jednak zró¿nicowana i zale¿a³a od
stê¿enia soli, czasu trwania stresu, badanego parametru, ale przede wszystkim od odmiany. Najlepiej na
oprysk Asahi SL zareagowa³y roœliny odm. `Monarch`, a najs³abiej odm. `Copper Moutain`.
ADRES DO KORESPONDENCJI:
Dr Mariola Wrochna, dr Barbara £ata, dr hab., prof. SGGW Helena Gawroñska
Szko³a G³ówna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie
Wydzia³ Ogrodnictwa i Architektury Krajobrazu
Zak³ad Przyrodniczych Podstaw Ogrodnictwa
ul. Nowoursynowska 159
tel. 0 22 593 20 88, 593 20 89, 593 20 94,
e-mail: [email protected]
Prof. dr hab. Bo¿enna Borkowska
Instytut Sadownictwa i Kwiaciarstwa w Skierniewicach
Zak³ad Uprawy Roœlin Szklarniowych
ul. Pomologiczna 18
96-100 Skierniewice
tel. (046) 834 52 82
e-mail: [email protected]
65
WP£YW BIOSTYMULATORÓW (ASAHI SL I SIAPTON) NA WZROST
BERGENIA CORDIFOLIA ((HAW.) STERNB.) `ROTBLUM` ORAZ
HOSTA SP. (TRATT.) `SUM AND SUBSTANCE` I `MINUTEMAN`
Justyna Krajewska, Monika J. Latkowska
STRESZCZENIE
Badano wp³yw biostymulatorów na wzrost roœlin Bergenia cordifolia `Rotblum` oraz dwóch odmian
Hosta sp. (`Sum and Substance` i `Minuteman`). Roœliny opryskiwano 4. lub 8. krotnie roztworami wodnymi Siapton (0,2%) i Asahi SL (0,1%), stosowanymi oddzielnie lub naprzemiennie, co 1 lub 2 tygodnie.
Zastosowanie Asahi SL (4- i 8-krotnie) zwiêkszy³o zawartoœæ chlorofilu a + b w liœciach Hosta `Sum and
Substance`, a tak¿e u Bergenia cordifolia (8-krotne zastosowanie). Siapton zwiêkszy³ zawartoœc bia³ka w
liœciach obu odmian funkii (opryskiwanych 4 i 8 razy) oraz bergenii (przy 8. krotnym zastosowaniu).
Wp³yw biostymulatorów na wzrost roœlin zale¿a³ od liczby zabiegów, gatunku i odmiany roœliny. W pierwszym roku uprawy zastosowanie Siaptonu zwiêkszy³o d³ugoœæ i szerokoœæ blaszek liœciowych oraz œwie¿¹
masê korzeni Hosta `Sum and Substance`. Roœliny Bergenia cordifolia opryskiwane 8 razy Siaptonem mia³y
wiêksze liœcie i wiêcej korzeni ni¿ roœliny z kombinacji kontrolnej. U Hosta `Minuteman` zwiêkszon¹ liczbê
liœci odnotowano u roœlin opryskiwanych 4 razy preparatem Asahi lub Siapton. Biostymulatory zwiêkszy³y œwie¿¹ masê i wielkoœæ liœci oraz œwie¿¹ masê korzeni, zarówno u roœlin zimuj¹cych w szklarni, jak i na
zewn¹trz.
ADRES DO KORESPONDENCJI:
dr Monika Latkowska
Szko³a G³ówna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie
Wydzia³ Ogrodnictwa i Architektury Krajobrazu
Katedra Roœlin Ozdobnych
ul. Nowoursynowska 159
02-776 Warszawa
tel (0 22) 593 22 68
e-mail: [email protected]
66
WP£YW ASAHI SL NA POCZ¥TKOWY ROZWÓJ SADZONEK
WIERZBY (SALIX) PRZY ZRÓ¯NICOWANEJ WILGOTNOŒCI GLEBY
Gra¿yna Harasimowicz-Hermann, Krzysztof Czy¿
STRESZCZENIE
Celem badañ by³o okreœlenie przydatnoœci wybranych stymulatorów do inicjacji korzeni oraz rozwoju
sadzonek wierzby przy ró¿nej wilgotnoœci gleby. Hipoteza badawcza zak³ada³a, ¿e zarówno klon wierzby,
jak i wilgotnoœæ pod³o¿a mo¿e wp³ywaæ na efektywnoœæ ukorzeniaczy. Dla weryfikacji hipotezy wykonano
badania w oparciu o doœwiadczenie wazonowe, trójczynnikowe w trzech powtórzeniach. Istotnoœæ ró¿nic
dla badanych parametrów by³a ocenia przy u¿yciu testu Tukey’a.
Czynnikami doœwiadczenia by³y:
–
–
–
stymulatory ukorzeniania i wzrostu roœlin – a) Asahi SL, b) Korzonek D DS, c) 0 –
bez stymulatora,
klony wierzby – (I) Salix alba i II) Salix viminalis,
wilgotnoϾ gleby Р1) 75-25% p. p. w. (nw) i 2) 75-60% p. p. w. (ww).
Substancj¹ czynn¹ ukorzeniacza Korzonek D DS jest auksyna. Preparat dodatkowo zawiera fungicyd
Kaptan. Biostymulator Asahi SL nie zawiera hormonów roœlinnych, a mechanizm jego dzia³ania polega
miêdzy innymi na tym, ¿e stymuluje syntezê naturalnych hormonów. Proces ukorzeniania sadzonek prowadzono przez 12 tygodni. Na obiektach 1 i 2 przez okres 3 tygodni od posadzenia utrzymywano wilgotnoœæ
gleby na jednakowym poziomie 75% p. p. w, a przez kolejne 9 tygodni by³a ona zró¿nicowana. Na obiekcie
1 stworzono warunki niedostatecznego uwilgotnienia w ten sposób, ¿e nie podlewano wazonów, a ubytek
wody z gleby systematycznie postêpowa³ i na zakoñczenie cyklu badawczego jej wilgotnoœæ wynosi³a 25%
p. p. w.; na obiekcie 2 utrzymywano uwilgotnienie optymalne na poziomie – 60% p. p. w.
Stymulatory zastosowane w badaniach w³asnych do ukorzenianiu wierzby ró¿nicowa³y masê korzeni
wytwarzan¹ przez sadzonki, ale ró¿nice nie by³y udowodnione statystycznie. Sadzonki wierzby, obu
badanych klonów, poddane przed sadzeniem dzia³aniu Asahi SL, wytwarza³y regularnie wiêksz¹ masê
korzeni i pêdów nadziemnych ni¿ te, na które stosowano standardowy ukorzeniacz Korzonek D DS. W
warunkach posusznych sadzonki Salix viminalis uprawiane bez stymulatorów nie wytworzy³y ¿adnych
korzeni, co spowodowa³o ubytki roœlin. Badane klony niezale¿nie od u¿ytego stymulatora ukorzeniania w
warunkach posusznych wytwarza³y mniejsz¹ masê korzeni i pêdów nadziemnych ni¿ w warunkach jej
optymalnego uwilgotnienia. Sadzonki Salix alba – klon 1100 w warunkach niedoboru wody wytwarza³y
dwukrotnie bujniejszy system korzeniowy ni¿ roœliny klonu 1057, nale¿¹cego do Salix viminalis, podczas
gdy przy optymalnej wilgotnoœci ró¿nice w masie korzeniowej tych klonów by³y nieznaczne.
ADRES DO KORESPONDENCJI:
dr hab. in¿. Gra¿yna Harasimowicz-Hermann
Uniwersytet Technologiczno-Przyrodniczy w Bydgoszczy
Katedra Szczegó³owej Uprawy Roœlin
ul. Kordeckiego 20, 85-225 Bydgoszcz
tel. (0 52) 374 94 07
e-mail: [email protected]
67
WP£YW STYMULATORA WZROSTU ATONIK NA WSKANIKI
FIZJOLOGICZNE WIERZBY WICIOWEJ (SALIX VIMINALIS L. )
UPRAWIANEJ NA POD£O¯U ANTROPOGENICZNYM
Jacek Wróbel, Anna WoŸniak
STRESZCZENIE
Oceniano wp³yw dwóch stê¿eñ regulatora wzrostu Atonik (0,1 i 0,2%) na wybrane parametry fizjologiczne, tj. zawartoœæ barwników asymilacyjnych, wzglêdn¹ zawartoœæ wody [RWC] oraz sk³ad pierwiastkowy wierzby wiciowej klonu Bjor, uprawianej na pod³o¿u pochodzenia antropogenicznego – refulacie piaszczystym, i dodatkowo wzbogaconym osadem œciekowym. Zastosowanie Atoniku w stê¿eniu 0,1% w
warunkach nawo¿enia refulatu osadem œciekowym, wp³ynê³o korzystniej na zwiêkszenie aktywnoœci fizjologicznej klonu Bjor ni¿ pozosta³e kombinacje doœwiadczenia. Oceniono to na podstawie znacz¹cego wzrostu zawartoœci barwników asymilacyjnych, wzglêdnej zawartoœci wody [RWC] w liœciach, a tak¿e zwiêkszonej zdolnoœci do bioakumulacji pierwiastków w organach Salix viminalis klonu Bjor. Wykazano przydatnoœæ tego preparatu, w odpowiednio niskim stê¿eniu, w uprawie wierzby wiciowej klonu Bjor w niekorzystnych warunkach siedliskowych.
ADRES DO KORESPONDENCJI:
dr hab. Jacek Wróbel, mgr in¿. Anna WoŸniak
Akademia Rolnicza w Szczecinie
Katedra Fizjologii Roœlin
71-434 Szczecin
ul. S³owackiego 17
tel. (0 91) 425 03 17
e-mail: [email protected]
68
WP£YW ETEFONU NA KWITNIENIE FREZJI Z GRUPY
POT UPRAWIANEJ W SEZONIE WIOSENNO-LETNIM
Piotr ¯urawik
STRESZCZENIE
Badania nad wp³ywem etefonu na kwitnienie trzech odmian frezji z grupy Easy Pot (`Gompey`,
`Popey` i `Suzy`), przeprowadzono w latach 2001-2002. Roœliny uprawiano w tunelu foliowym w terminie
wiosenno-letnim, bez ch³odzenia pod³o¿a. Jako Ÿród³o etefonu stosowano preparaty o nazwach handlowych Flordimex 420 SL i Ethrel 480 SL. Przed posadzeniem, przez 24 godziny, wypreparowane bulwy
moczono w roztworach regulatora, utrzymuj¹c w pomieszczeniu temperaturê powietrza na poziomie 2830°C i ca³kowicie ograniczaj¹c dostêp œwiat³a. Stosowano piêæ stê¿eñ etefonu: 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000
mg·dm-3. Bulwy kontrolne moczono w wodzie wodoci¹gowej. W trakcie kwitnienia ocenie poddano niektóre
cechy generatywne, tj.: d³ugoœæ pêdu kwiatostanowego I rzêdu, d³ugoœæ kwiatostanu, liczbê kwiatów w
kwiatostanie oraz œrednicê pierwszego kwiatu w kwiatostanie. Pomiary wykonywano w momencie rozwiniêcia siê pierwszego kwiatu w kwiatostanie.
Na podstawie uzyskanych wyników stwierdzono, ¿e w obu latach badañ o wartoœci dekoracyjnej frezji
z grupy Easy Pot decydowa³y zarówno cechy odmianowe, jak i traktowanie bulw etefonem, w stê¿eniach od
125 do 2000 mg·dm-3. Spoœród zastosowanych stê¿eñ, najsilniej na roœliny oddzia³ywa³y dwa najwiêksze, tj.
1000 i 2000 mg·dm-3. Frezje wszystkich ocenianych odmian, uprawiane z bulw, które moczono w roztworze
regulatora o stê¿eniu 2000 mg·dm-3, nie zakwit³y w trakcie trwania doœwiadczeñ. Natomiast roœliny uzyskane w obiektach, gdzie stosowano stê¿enie 1000 mg·dm-3, charakteryzowa³y siê – w porównaniu do roœlin
kontrolnych – o 31-56% krótszymi pêdami kwiatostanowymi I rzêdu, o 21-28% krótszymi kwiatostanami,
wykszta³ci³y o 21-24% mniej kwiatów w kwiatostanie oraz odznacza³y siê o 4-17% mniejsz¹ œrednic¹
kwiatów. W przeprowadzonych badaniach oddzia³ywanie etefonu by³o silniejsze wówczas, gdy temperatura panuj¹ca podczas uprawy by³a ni¿sza, a masa bulw wiêksza.
Spoœród ocenianych stê¿eñ, najbardziej korzystne okaza³y siê 125 i 250 mg·dm-3, bowiem uzyskane
kwiatostany by³y krêpe, zwarte i nie wymaga³y podpierania w trakcie kwitnienia. Natomiast stosowanie
stê¿eñ 1000 i 2000 mg·dm-3 wywar³o niekorzystny wp³yw na rozwój generatywny ocenianych odmian
frezji, które k³osi³y siê póŸno lub wcale, a wykszta³cone kwiatostany mia³y ma³¹ wartoœæ dekoracyjn¹.
ADRES DO KORESPONDENCJI:
dr in¿. Piotr ¯urawik
Akademia Rolnicza w Szczecinie
Katedra Roœlin Ozdobnych
ul. Janosika 8
71-424 Szczecin
tel. (0 91) 422 08 51 wew. 354, 357
e-mail: [email protected]

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